5b, f); paracymbium prolonged, without conspicuous lateral or basal lobes, proximal reinforced by sclerotization
-- Tergal sclerotization
of segments 1-6 extending onto lateral regions to include the spiracles, spiracles located marginally and posterior to the antecostal sutures; hair-like sensilla present, more numerous ventrally; abdominal segments 7 and 8 completely scleroterized, each with well-defined lateral series of hair-like natatory sensilla, spiracles on segment seven below natatory series; abdominal segment 8 length 1.55-1.95 mm ([bar.x] = 1.81 [+ or -] 0.13 mm); siphon length 0.43-0.62 mm ( = 0.56 [+ or -] 0.06 mm); enlarged tracheae visible posteriorly.
Female genitalia: Antrum ranges from narrow to broad with different degrees of sclerotization
. Area between ostium bursae and papillae anales (= posterior lobe) varies in complexity from flat and sclerotized to deeply sculpted with different shaped ridges.
The new cuticle must be packed within the old, and there is probably a limit to how tightly cuticle can be packed and how much expansion the new cuticle can undergo following ecdysis before sclerotization
. A minimum premolt weight may reflect the nutritional requirements necessary to synthesize new cuticle.
Both species show smooth margins with a round, slightly inclined tip, with greater sclerotization
Etymology: From Latin timidus (cautious), in reference to the very delicate sclerotization
of the epigyne.
, both alkylphenols and cold tyrosine competed with [C.sup.14]-tyrosine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner.
This gerrid subfamily is diagnosed by a unique combination of characters, although all of them are either homoplasies, such as thornlike microstructures on the cuticulum (also found in Veliidae) and well-developed bucculae (also found in Hebridae, Hydrometridae and Macroveliidae) or reversals, such as the well-developed female ovipositor, the presence of second gonocoxae, the sclerotization
of second gonapophyses, the absence of glandular areas of the female gynatrial sac, and the absence of a fecundation pump of the female gynatrial complex (Damgaard, 2008b).
However, certain invertebrates are known to use alternative mechanisms, such as incorporation of zinc or copper ions in the mandibles of polychaetes and termites (Lichtenegger et al., 2003; Cribb et al., 2008) or the sclerotization
of insect cuticles (Broomell et al., 2007).
Coloration: Chelicerae brownish-yellow with finely reticulate infuscation on manus, becoming more intense distally; fingers brownish-yellow, not infuscated, teeth darker due to sclerotization
. Carapace brownish-yellow with darker tanbrown patches of infuscation around median ocelli (Figs.