Intercoastal tube (ICT) thoracostomy is one of the easy methods to treat spontaneous pneumothorax and also make possible to induce pleurodesis by injecting chemical sclerosing agent
through that tube.
Some non-surgical methods like autologous blood injection in upper joint space, intermaxillary fixation and use of sclerosing agent
(sodium tetradecyl sulphate) are recommended for chronic for of TMJ dislocation.
To treat VMs, various sclerosing agents
including ethanol, bleomycin, polidocanol, sodium morrhuate, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, ethanolamine oleate, sodium diatrizoate tetrahydrate, hypertonic saline and OK432, alone or in combination have been used (11).
As a sclerosing agent
in the head and neck diseases, it was first used with success in 1977 (7).
They used the same sclerosing agent
in the same concentration as in our study.
Seidel Jr., "Azoospermia in dogs induced by injection of sclerosing agents
into the caudae of the epididymides," American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol.
Light, "Effectiveness of bleomycin in comparison to tetracycline as pleural sclerosing agent
in rabbits," Chest, vol.
An option of foam sclerotherapy, mixing the sclerosing agent
with carbon dioxide or room air, can have greater efficacy because it prolongs contact between the sclerosant and the vein wall, but it theoretically carries some of the systemic risks associated with air emboli.
"Once the needle is in place, a sclerosing agent
or laser energy can be delivered into the vein, causing the affected vein to seal shut.
(14) In this way, the sclerosing agent
should eliminate neovascularization and decrease the pain associated with PT.
(10) In dogs, successful conservative treatment of an orbital mucocele using a sclerosing agent
has been described.
She was advised that injecting polidocanol (a non-ionic detergent used as a sclerosing agent
) into the neovessels was an accepted method of treating the pain of recalcitrant Achilles tendinosis.