There was no overlap in the length and width of the pharyngeal sclerite
and mouth hooks between instars of B.
On the other side the subtegulum is attached to the sclerite
of the middle part of the bulbus (tegulum) via the middle hematodocha.
drawings of D, annulata (Nierstrasz, 1902: fig.
20, the relationships of the genera in the clade are unresolved, except for Goja and Ianthorntonia; the clade is monophyletic, supported by two synapomorphies: endophallus radular or with sclerites
(5-1), and external parameres membranous or well defined projections (7-1).
Four types of epibiotic and endocuticular bacteria on sclerites
and in body mantle cuticle have been demonstrated as symbionts in H.
19) Convoluted sclerites
on phallomeres, three states: right and left (0), left (1), right (2).
Ventral arch (VA) articulating with ventral margin of mouth hook, sclerotized, two foramens, anterior margin with 20-24 denticles, posterior margin V-shaped; epistomal sclerite
(ES) bilobed, welded to both parastomal bars (PB), all C-shaped; parastomal bars posteriorly fused with pharyngeal sclerites
Medium to large flies; male holoptic; lower calypter narrow, rounded posteriorly, with anteromedian angle distinctly lateral to base of scutellum, not directed towards the scutellum; subcostal sclerite
and basal section of stein vein bare (remigium); apical tip ofparaphallus with denticles.
The taxonomy and systematics of the group have been particularly difficult because species descriptions and higher level phylogenetics have been based on phenotypically plastic traits such as colony form and sclerite
2009b) has recently confirmed that the eunuch phenomenon typically entails initial sclerite
damaging during copulation, followed by voluntary post-copulation palpal removal, corroborating only two previous observations on Nephilengys (Robinson & Robinson 1980).
The endophallus is inserted through the female ovipositor duct and vagina, and the apical sclerite
lay at the mouth of the long, thin, and convoluted spermathecal duct.
usually rod- or vase-shaped, longer than other sclerites
, which may be barrel-shaped to teardrop-shaped, slightly imbricated to offset, barely connecting with adjacent sclerites
, and diminishing in size distally.