Previous research on school refusal
behavior has focused primarily on proximal levels of influence, such as the individual and individual school variables.
Kearney, School refusal
behavior in youth: A functional approach to assessment and treatment, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
While it might seem like just one tough morning that can be shrugged off, true school refusal
will continue or escalate unless it is properly managed.
Clearly, these three situational factors are directly related to the following two functions or reasons behind school refusal
behavior (Kearney et al., 1995): (a) to avoid school-related objects and situations that provoke a general sense of negative affect (i.e., anxiety) and (b) to escape from aversive social and/or evaluative situations at school.
The SCARED is a self-report questionnaire that measures five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions in children and adolescents, namely Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, School Anxiety (or: School Refusal
), Separation Anxiety Disorder, and Social Anxiety Disorder.
When her sister Claire was three months pregnant, Sophie even kicked her during a violent outburst, just missing her stomach and hitting her hip, something Bernadette describes as "out of character" as she had always been "a pleasant child" before her problems began with agoraphobia and school refusal
A spokeswoman said: "For dyslexic learners who have maths on top of reading problems, it's a 'double whammy' that can even lead to school refusal
Kearney, What is school refusal
behavior?, (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001).
Studies dealing with school refusal
(SR), which is a short- and long-term stressful condition for both parents and school personnel, have been reported in the literature since the last century.
She explains the academic discipline of educational psychology, how to read journal articles, then research and interventions at levels of the classroom, whole-school, and beyond the school in the areas of managing behavior, autism, school refusal
, improving literacy, bullying, inclusive education, eradicating disadvantage in preschool, parenting children with developmental disabilities, and neuroscience and education.
Case 2: RtI Framework Made Room for the Effective Treatment of School Refusal
Along with describing inadequate interventions, the fourth chapter lists examples of negative outcomes (bullying, school refusal
, addictions, early school leaving, suicide, and youth violence) that occur when students receive inadequate interventions to address barriers to learning.