When the effect of the interaction between scarification
and color was examined, it was verified that the fastest germination (336 days) took place when brown seeds scarified on their lateral side were used
(2014) used the treatment of acid scarification
for 5min to overcome dormancy during the accelerated ageing, and similarly observed that those seeds led to a higher electrical conductivity during the process, presenting a significant increase of 38.24[micro]S x [cm.sup.-1] x [g.sup.-1] compared to the control without scarification
The treatments with scarification
using sandpaper--T2 and cut with pruning pliers--T3 were superior to the others for all accessions.
For the seeds subjected to stratification for 90 days or for the combined use of scarification
and stratification for 90 days, the emergence started around seven days after sowing, with climax between 14 and 21 days and stabilization in the sixth week.
To assess differences in growth between juveniles issued from crosses made with the two spawning methods, data from each method were pooled, NJ/NR for the gonad scarification
procedure and B1/C1 for the thermal shock, before comparison using Mann-Whitney tests.
by soaking in 2% hydrogen peroxide [H.sub.2][O.sub.2]) solution and increasing concentration of GA3 added to MS media improved germination, when concentration of 2.5 mg/l of GA3 presented the highest germination percentage (G%= 54%) and the best germination rate (GR= 0.14 seeds per day), compared to the control unpretreated (T1) and to the other GA3 concentrations added to MS medium (0, 0.625 and 1.25 mg/l).
and water for 2 hours: this treatment consisted of the mechanical scarification
followed by immersing the seed in water at ambient temperature for two hours.
Studies on Lupinus species showed that mechanical or chemical scarification
is needed to obtain uniform and rapid germination and hot water or boiling treatments can improve germination .
On the programme Grainne also observes even more extreme forms of body modification such as scarification
- in which a design is cut directly into the skin.
Wimbrow's question about absorbable sutures makes sense theoretically, scarification
does occur with a delayed absorbable suture such as polyglactin 910 or polydiaxanone, even though there are no raw surfaces.
Results are varied, but even acid and mechanical scarification
treatments have not promoted better germination for species such as Opuntia rastrera (Mandujano et al., 2005), which probably is associated with lack of physical dormancy that has been seen in other species of Opuntia (Orozco-Segovia et al., 2007).