The disadvantages are a limited range of abduction,  normal mobility of the scapulothoracic joint
is a prerequisite and this is an irreversible procedure.
At a larger angle, shoulder abduction occurs at a 2:1 ratio between the glenohumeral joint through abduction of the humerus and the scapulothoracic joint
by lateral rotation of the scapula.
 Upper Crossed Syndrome is characterised by the hypertonic upper trapezius, levator scapulae, and pectoralis muscles, as well as inhibition of the deep cervical flexors, rhomboids, and serratus anterior, which may affect scapulothoracic joint
The relative immobility or malfunction of the shoulder over a period of time produces changes in muscles and ligaments at glenohumeral, acromioclavicular and scapulothoracic joint
. Ligaments and muscles get shorter and produce pain on movement.
(10) It is essential during this period of observation and potential early neurological recovery that the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joint
be specifically evaluated as part of the upper extremity examination during serial (i.e., monthly) examinations.
Muscles that attach in and around the glenohumeral joint and the scapulothoracic joint
are considered the dynamic shoulder stabilizers.
Overuse, trauma of the tendons, anatomic variations of the acromion or coracoid process may lead to narrowing of the subacromial space, while glenohumeral or scapulothoracic joint
instability, faulty posture or posterior capsule tightness may result in impingement due to "relative narrowing" (1,7).
This was seen, despite a trend towards a delay in activation time of all the other muscles within the injured group.'191 It is obvious that serratus anterior plays a significant role in the initial stabilisation of the scapulothoracic joint
in a simulated tackle situation.
Comparison of 3-dimensional shoulder complex kinematics in individuals with and without shoulder pain, part 1: sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and scapulothoracic joints
. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther.
The shoulder complex comprises the glenohumeral, acromiaclavicular, sternoclavicular, scapulothoracic joints
and the subacromial space.
The maximum displacements and forces generated in the scapulothoracic joints
of 10 nondisabled subjects are displayed in the Table.
The biomechanics of the acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and scapulothoracic joints
. Instr Course Lect.