The discussion of previous work showed that very few studies quantified contralateral differences of the scaphoid, measuring only basic parameters.
The scaphoid has a twisted and bean-formed shape which makes the analysis of complex mal- and nonunions based on conventional radiographs difficult.
Finlay, "Patterns of union in fractures of the waist of the scaphoid," Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol.
Dickson, "The fractured carpal scaphoid. Natural history and factors influencing outcome," Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol.
Sennwald, "Prognostic factors in the treatment of carpal scaphoid nonunions," Journal of Hand Surgery, vol.
Redlund-Johnell, "Long-term results of fracture of the scaphoid. A follow-up study of more than thirty years," Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol.
Displaced fractures of the scaphoid. Clin Orthop Relat Res.
Avascular necrosis after scaphoid fracture: A correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and histology.
Fractures of the scaphoid: A rational approach to management.
Retrograde Herbert screw fixation for treatment of proximal pole scaphoid nonunions.
Treatment of ununited fractures of the scaphoid by iliac bone grafts and Kirschner-wire fixation.
Nonunion of the scaphoid: Analysis of the results from bone grafting.