saxitoxin


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saxitoxin

 [sak´sĭ-tok″sin]
a powerful heat-stable low molecular weight neurotoxin synthesized and secreted by certain dinoflagellates, such as species of Gonyaulax, which accumulates in the tissue of bivalve mollusks feeding on the dinoflagellates; it may cause a severe toxic reaction called shellfish poisoning in those who ingest contaminated mollusks.

sax·i·tox·in

(sak'si-tok'sin),
A potent neurotoxin found in shellfish, such as the mussel or the clam (and sometimes the pufferfish, Sphoerides nephelus), produced by the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella, which is ingested by the shellfish; the cause of cases of poisoning from eating the California sea mussel (Mytilus californianus), scallop, and the Alaskan butterclam (Saxidomus giganteus).

saxitoxin

(săk′sĭ-tŏk′sĭn)
n.
A potent neurotoxin produced by certain dinoflagellates that accumulates in shellfish feeding on these organisms and consequently causes food poisoning in humans who eat the shellfish.
A potent paralyzing neurotoxin first isolated from the Alaskan clam—Saxidomus giganteus—which binds to the cell membrane’s Na+ channel, blocking depolarisation at the neuromuscular junction, and increasing permeability for Na+; the toxin is heat-stable, water-soluble and rapidly absorbed from the GI tract; as few as 6 contaminated clams may be fatal

sax·i·tox·in

(sak'si-tok'sin)
A potent neurotoxin found in shellfish, such as the mussel or the clam, produced by the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella, which is ingested by the shellfish; the cause of poisoning due to eating California sea mussels, scallops, and Alaskan butterclams.
References in periodicals archive ?
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a potentially fatal syndrome resulting from ingestion of shellfish containing toxins known as saxitoxins. These comprise a range of more than 30 different analogues, which are associated with a number of toxic phytoplankton, including the genera of Alexandrium species, together with Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium (Wright 1995, Llewellyn 2006).
The cockles collected from the community member in Metlakatla and the mussels collected from the hospital in Ketchikan tested positive for high levels of saxitoxins (Table).
Ecology of saxitoxin chemical defense and resistance
Summary of 41 snail samples analyzed in this study, showing species, part of snail analyzed, harvesting area, sample collection date, and PSP toxicides (micrograms saxitoxin equivalents per kg of shellfish) by MBA and LC-FLD.
Saxitoxin ranged from 15% in cockles to 6% of the total PST in clams.
The illnesses described in this report occurred after ingestion of pufferfish but are consistent with the presence of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish toxin usually associated with ingestion of filter-feeding shellfish.
Several of the approximately 100 species of pufferfish contain neurotoxins (i.e., tetrodotoxin and/or saxitoxin); most pufferfish caught in U.S.
The Woods Hole team will focus on two species of algae: Alexandrium fundyense, which produces saxitoxins, and A.
The implicated mussels had been harvested in an area of the Georges Bank where contamination of surf clams and sea scallops with saxitoxin had been detected through a deep-sea sampling survey conducted by the MDPH.
Cyanotoxins include neurotoxic anatoxin-a and anatoxin-a(s), paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP; saxitoxin and analogues), and hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsins (1).
Saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning in the United Stales, with the first report of Pyrodonium bahamense as the putative toxin source.