There is also a reduction of the satellite cells
(responsible of regeneration), loss of excitability (decrease of the receptors), decline of the myosin protein content (reduction of the number of cross-bondings and of the maximum strength previous to the failure), rigidity (elasticity reduction), physical inactivity (affecting type I fibers), loss of mitochondrial content and function, and comorbidities such as cancer, diabetes and type II chronic heart failure (13, 14).
numbers in young and older men 24 hours after eccentric exercise.
(2009) Local NSAID infusion inhibits satellite cell
proliferation in human skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise.
The expression level of HGF mRNA, which is a well-studied activation factor for satellite cells
, was significantly increased in the Precon group at 2 and 4 days after damaging ECC (Figure 3(a)).
proliferation and the expression of myogenin and desmin in regenerating skeletal muscle: evidence for two different populations of satellite cells
In brief, increased oxidative stress as a result of redox imbalance during aging leads to increased susceptibility of satellite cells
to apoptosis and affects muscle regeneration [6, 8, 29, 30].
Senba, "In vivo activation of STAT3 signaling in satellite cells
and myofibers in regenerating rat skeletal muscles," The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, vol.
Isolation and characterization of primary skeletal muscle satellite cells
A wide space (square) is located between an atrophied skeletal muscle fiber (arrows) and a satellite cell
showing an irregular shaped nucleus (N) and swollen mitochondria (Mit).
When skeletal muscles are damaged, they are repaired by stem cells called satellite cells
, which multiply and transform into replacement muscle cells.
The skeletal muscle satellite cell
: The stem cell that came in from the cold.
Moreover, the study on satellite cells
 and differentiated muscle cells  indicated that LLLI promoted SIRT1 deacetylase activity, probably through increased [NAD.sup.+] level or the enhancement of SIRT1 protein expression.