sarcoma


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sarcoma

 [sahr-ko´mah] (pl. sarcomas, sarco´mata.)
A tumor, often highly malignant, composed of cells derived from connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessel, or lymphoid tissue; sarcomas usually develop rapidly and metastasize through the lymph channels. Different types are named for the specific tissue they affect: fibrosarcoma in fibrous connective tissue; lymphosarcoma in lymphoid tissues; osteosarcoma in bone; chondrosarcoma in cartilage; rhabdosarcoma in muscle; and liposarcoma in fat cells. adj., adj sarco´matous.
Abernethy's sarcoma a malignant fatty tumor occurring mainly on the trunk.
alveolar soft part sarcoma one with a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue.
botryoid sarcoma (sarcoma botryoi´des) an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising in submucosal tissue, usually in the upper vagina, cervix uteri, or bladder neck in young children and infants, presenting grossly as a polypoid grapelike structure.
endometrial stromal sarcoma a pale, polypoid, fleshy, malignant tumor of the endometrial stroma.
Ewing's sarcoma a malignant tumor of the bone that arises in medullary tissue, usually found in cylindrical bones, with pain, fever, and leukocytosis as prominent symptoms; called also Ewing's tumor.
giant cell sarcoma a malignant form of giant cell tumor of bone.
granulocytic sarcoma chloroma.
immunoblastic sarcoma of B cells an aggressive B-cell lymphoma believed to arise from transformed interfollicular B lymphocytes, which in many cases is associated with a preexisting immunologic disorder, e.g., Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or with an immunocompromised state.
immunoblastic sarcoma of T cells a group of T-cell lymphomas comprising tumors derived from T lymphocytes in the paracortical area arising from a mixture of small lymphocytes and many large transformed cells; the latter are characterized by one or more small but distinctly eosinophilic nucleoli.
Kaposi sarcoma a multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by bluish red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet; the nodules slowly increase in size and number and spread to more proximal sites. Tumors often remain confined to skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. The condition occurs endemically in certain parts of Central Africa and Central and Eastern Europe, and a particularly virulent and disseminated form occurs in immunocompromised patients such as transplant recipients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 has been implicated as a causative agent.
lymphatic sarcoma diffuse lymphoma.
osteogenic sarcoma a malignant primary tumor of bone composed of a malignant connective tissue stroma with evidence of osteoid, bone, and/or cartilage formation; depending upon the dominant component, classified as osteoblastic, fibroblastic, or chondroblastic.
pseudo–Kaposi sarcoma unilateral subacute to chronic dermatitis, often with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, occurring in association with underlying arteriovenous fistula, which closely resembles Kaposi sarcoma both clinically and histologically.
reticulum cell sarcoma histiocytic lymphoma.

sar·co·ma

(sar-kō'mă),
A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.
[G. sarkōma, a fleshy excrescence, fr. sarx, flesh, + -oma, tumor]

sarcoma

(sär-kō′mə)
n. pl. sarco·mas also sarco·mata (-mə-tə)
A malignant tumor arising from bone or from soft tissues such as muscle, cartilage, fat, or blood or lymph vessels.

sar·co′ma·toid′ (-mə-toid′), sar·co′ma·tous (-təs) adj.

sarcoma

A malignancy of mesenchymal tissues—e.g., bone (osteosarcoma), cartilage (chondrosarcoma), fat (liposarcoma), fibrous tissue (fibrosarcoma), smooth muscle (leiomyosarcoma), skeletal muscle (rhabdomyosarcoma), stroma (fibrosarcoma) and vessels (angiosarcoma, KS). Certain tumours are of uncertain cell lineage, but some are specifically designated sarcomas—e.g., alveolar soft part sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma.

DiffDx
Pseudosarcomas, which are either:
1. Mesenchymal and non-malignant soft tissue lesions—e.g., fibrous histiocytoma and fibromatoses; or
2. Non-mesenchymal and malignant, most commonly spindle cell squamous carcinoma of oral cavity, anaplastic carcinoma and melanoma.
 
Prognosis
Clinical behaviour of sarcomas is determined by tumour size (e.g., > 10 cm is worse), presence of necrosis, and histologic grading (based on mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism); sarcomas in men have a worse prognosis.

Management
Wide excision; chemo- and radiotherapy are ineffective.

sarcoma  

Oncology A CA of mesenchymal tissues–eg, bone–osteosarcoma, cartilage–chondrosarcoma, fat–liposarcoma, fibrous tissue–fibrosarcoma, smooth muscle–leiomyosarcoma, skeletal muscle–rhabdomyosarcoma, stroma–fibrosarcoma, and vessels–angiosarcoma, KS; certain tumors are of uncertain cell lineage, but designated sarcomas–eg, alveolar soft part sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma DiffDx Pseudosarcomas, which are either
1. Mesenchymal and non-malignant soft tissue lesions–eg, fibrous histiocytoma and fibromatoses and.
2. Non-mesenchymal and malignant, most commonly spindle cell squamous carcinoma of oral cavity, anaplastic carcinoma, melanoma Prognosis Clinical behavior of sarcomas is determined by tumor size–eg, > 10 cm is worse, presence of necrosis, and histologic grading–based on mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism; sarcomas in ♂ have a worse prognosis Treatment Wide excision; chemo- and RT are ineffective.

sar·co·ma

(sahr-kō'mă)
A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.
[G. sarkōma, a fleshy excrescence, fr. sarx, flesh, + -oma, tumor]

sarcoma

One of the two general types of cancer, the other being CARCINOMA. Sarcomas are malignant tumours of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, cartilage, fibrous tissue and blood vessels. Sarcomas are named after the parent tissue and include osteosarcoma, myosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and angiosarcoma. KAPOSI'S SARCOMA is a tumour of blood vessels.

sarcoma

a cancerous growth derived from muscle, bone, cartilage or connective tissue.

Sarcoma

A type of cancer that originates from connective tissue such as bone or muscle.
Mentioned in: Wilms' Tumor

sarcoma 

Malignant tumour formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

sar·co·ma

(sahr-kō'mă)
Connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.
[G. sarkōma, a fleshy excrescence, fr. sarx, flesh, + -oma, tumor]
References in periodicals archive ?
The growth of the global soft tissue sarcoma market would depend on factors like various healthcare-related investments.
| Transplant-related Kaposi's sarcoma is a rare complication of an organ transplant.
The company's ongoing Phase 2 study cohort is the largest prospective clinical trial in epithelioid sarcoma with any approved or investigational anticancer treatment to date.
The results of that study, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (MN Polizzotto et al, JCO, 2016, 34, 4125-31), evaluated POMALYST in patients with Kaposi sarcoma, with or without HIV infection, many of whom had received prior cytotoxic chemotherapy.
The Sarcoma UK charity says it is vital patients are referred to a specialist sarcoma team as early as possible, and that survival is more likely if the cancer is diagnosed early.
The most common symptoms of bone and soft tissue sarcoma include bone pain, a mass or swelling, and restricted movement in a joint.
Synovial sarcoma is actually a misnomer because the tumour does not originate from the synovium; it only exhibits similarity to synovial tissue at light microscopy.
At least one histiocytic or histiocyte-associated marker (CD163, CD68, CD11c, lysozyme) will be positive in cases of histiocytic sarcoma. CD163 should show a membranous and cytoplasmic pattern; expression is primarily limited to macrophages/histiocytes as well as nonneoplastic monocytes.
'Many childhood sarcomas are driven by gene fusions, however until now we have not known how or when these key events occur, or whether these processes change at relapse,' said Adam Shlien, one of the lead authors, Associate Director at SickKids Hospital.
The histopathological aspect establishes the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma, Grade 2 of malignancy FNCLCC (Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer) and the patient was referred to our department.
Sarcoma happens in young age and at that age there are no major risk factors like chewing tobacco or poor lifestyle.
Luke's, we have a highly experienced team dedicated to treat the sarcoma population and our outcomes are some of the best in the nation," states Maureen Tarrant, President & CEO at P/SL.