Sandfly fever has historically been considered a disease of military importance due to its ability to quickly incapacitate naive military formations in areas where the virus is endemic.
Outbreak of sandfly fever in central Iraq, September 2007.
The most remarkable laboratory findings related with sandfly fever include leukopenia, lymphopenia, monocytosis, thrombocytopenia, increased liver function tests and increased CK level (5, 6).
Since sandfly fever is characterized with short-term viremia, sandfly fever IgM positivity alone is a reliable variable in identifying acute infection in addition to demonstration of seroconversion (5).
Serological studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in the Old World.
Neutralization-based seroprevalence of Toscana virus and sandfly fever Sicilian virus in dogs and cats from Portugal.
virus showed the greatest seasonal variation, with most cases in the summer months, and C.
Recent attention has been drawn to Toscana virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus, species Sandfly fever
Naples virus') in countries surrounding the Mediterranean because the virus causes meningitis during summer.
Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences (Figure 2A) showed that Spanish, French, and Italian TOSV and SFNV formed a cluster that included members of the species Sandfly fever
Naples virus, for which genetic data were available.
SINV, Sindbis virus; TBEV, tickborne encephalitis virus; INKV, Inkoo virus; BATV, Batai virus; TAHV, Tahyna virus; UUKV, Uukuniemi virus, WNV, West Nile virus; SFV, Semliki Forest virus; CHIKV, Chikungunya virus; USUV, Usutu virus; LEDV, Lednice virus; SSEV, Spanish sheep encephalomyelitis virus; SFSV, sandfly fever
Sicilian virus; GGEV, Greek goat encephalomyelitis virus; CCHFV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; LIV, Louping ill virus.
Naples (but not the TOSV serotype) and Sicilian viruses have the widest geographic distribution, in parallel to their vector's (Phlebotomus papatasi) distribution.
Neurovirulent Toscana virus (a sandfly fever
virus) in Swedish man after a visit to Portugal.