--Sanction: In this stage the sanctioner
positively or negatively evaluates the results of the mission entrusted to the action subject, who now assumes the role of sanctionee.
Cooperation on economic sanctions in this case study involves the relationship between the main sender of the sanctions--the US--and a prospective nonleader sanctioner
a) by making possible rewards for sanctioning to the sanctioner
from other beneficiaries of the norm, or
Since partners are also interested in sanctioning what is likely to work, we can predict that the relative seniority level of sanctioner
and infractor is an important variable.
Furthermore, sanctions involving multilateral cooperation involve two separate cooperation dilemmas: one between the sanctioning states and the target, and one between the primary sanctioner
and other sanctioners
They first develop an "enforcement" model, and after reviewing the various coercive devices available--treaty-based military and economic sanctions, membership, and unilateral sanctions--conclude that it is usually doomed to failure.(185) They argue that "sanctioning authority is rarely granted by treaty, rarely used when granted, and likely to be ineffective when used."(186) Repeated use of sanctions entails high costs to the sanctioner
and can raise serious problems of legitimacy.(187)
Above all, what about Terry Venables - sanctioner
of the small hours boozing before take-off and provider of the first class seats doomed to be given a first class seeing to?
If sanctioning the railroad means ostracizing it, then the sanctioner
as well as the railroad lose a business opportunity.
While food and medicines usually are exempted from embargoes and other sanctions, those most shielded from the economic penalties often are those at the source of the policy that the sanctioner
is trying to change, and those most harmed are the average citizenry and the poor.
The leading sender can only gain cooperation if it transforms the sanctions game through issue-linkage, using either threats or promises to change the payoffs of the other potential sanctioner
. Regardless of the tactic used, the other potential sanctioner
considers whether the leading sender will actually carry out threats or make side payments.
One important factor with respect to enforcement norms is the cost of sanctioning to the sanctioner
(251): if I see someone doing something wrong, what will happen to me if I confront her or impose some other penalty, such as gossiping about her?