Cooperation on economic sanctions in this case study involves the relationship between the main sender of the sanctions--the US--and a prospective nonleader sanctioner
a) by making possible rewards for sanctioning to the sanctioner
from other beneficiaries of the norm, or
Since partners are also interested in sanctioning what is likely to work, we can predict that the relative seniority level of sanctioner
and infractor is an important variable.
Furthermore, sanctions involving multilateral cooperation involve two separate cooperation dilemmas: one between the sanctioning states and the target, and one between the primary sanctioner
and other sanctioners
13) Theoretically, we can begin to understand the dynamics of international cooperation on economic sanctions by considering dichotomous decisions about whether to impose sanctions made by each of two states, a leading sender (State A) and another potential sanctioner
But sanctions don't mean anything if we're the only sanctioner
One important factor with respect to enforcement norms is the cost of sanctioning to the sanctioner
(251): if I see someone doing something wrong, what will happen to me if I confront her or impose some other penalty, such as gossiping about her?
2001) all find that when a structure exists for agents to reduce the monetary payments to low contributors, agents will use the sanctioning system, even when the sanctioner
bears some of the cost.
Assuming that a norm of voting has served to overcome collective action problems for only certain groups in the United States, and assuming that the norm has eroded over time even among these groups because of a decrease in social connectedness, arguably the state should take on the role of social sanctioner
of last resort through a compulsory voting law.
If it is costly to monitor the actions of others and/or to impose sanctions on them, those assigned these tasks may not be motivated to undertake these assignments unless (1) the monitor and sanctioner
face a probability of an or else, (2) social pressure to monitor and sanction is large and is salient to the monitor and sanctioner
Who have been the "winners" -- certainly not the Generals who are engaging in a third costly war when the sanctioners
decided to escalate to the 'military option', once their sanctions policies failed to result in the overthrow of the Libyan regime.
There does appear to be an improved appetite by some banks to provide finance into 2011; however the credit sanctioners
need to feed that hunger.