salivary glands

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pertaining to the saliva.
salivary glands the glands in the mouth that secrete saliva. The major ones are the three pairs known as the parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual glands (see Plates); there are other smaller salivary glands within the cheeks and tongue. The largest are the parotids, located below and in front of each ear. Saliva secreted by these glands is discharged into the mouth through openings in the cheeks on each side opposite the upper teeth. The submaxillary glands, located inside the lower jaw, discharge saliva upward through openings into the floor of the mouth. The sublingual glands, beneath the tongue, also discharge saliva into the floor of the mouth.

The saliva is needed to moisten the mouth, lubricate food for easier swallowing, remineralize the tooth surface, and provide the enzyme (ptyalin) necessary to begin food breakdown in the preliminary stage of digestion. The salivary glands produce about 1.5 liters of saliva daily.

The salivary glands are controlled by the nervous system. Normally they respond by producing saliva within 2 or 3 seconds after being stimulated by the sight, smell, or taste of food. This quick response is a reflex action.

In mumps (parotitis), the parotids become inflamed and swollen. Occasionally, salivary glands produce too much saliva; this condition is called ptyalism, and is the result of local irritation from dental appliances or of disturbances of digestion or of the nervous system or other causes. Certain diseases, drugs such as morphine or atropine, and nutritional deficiency of vitamin B can result in decreased secretion of saliva.
The salivary glands. From Jarvis, 2000.
salivary gland inclusion disease cytomegalic inclusion disease.

salivary glands

Three pairs of glands that open into the mouth to provide a cleaning, lubricating and digestive fluid. The largest pair, the parotid glands, lie in the cheek in front of the ear. The other two pairs, the sublingual and the submandibular glands are in the floor of the mouth.
References in periodicals archive ?
Prognostic value of expression of molecular markers in adenoid cystic cancer of salivary glands compared with lymph node metastasis: A retrospective study.
Pleomorphic basaloid neoplasms are not commonly seen in aspirates of salivary glands and are usually easily diagnosed as malignant by morphology alone.
The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression pattern of three BPIF proteins in head and neck tissues from very early human fetuses and in the major and minor salivary glands, tongue and palate of later-stage human fetuses.
It is also the most common tumour of the minor salivary glands accounting for 39% of the cases, of which 10% occur in palate and 4% in lips respectively.
According to World Health Organization (WHO) salivary glands tumors are broadly classified as epithelial tumors, soft tissues tumors, hematolymphoid tumors and metastatic tumors.
Pleomorphic adenomas (PA) account for 50 - 60% of benign salivary gland tumours5 and are especially common in the parotid gland (80%) followed by minor salivary glands (10%) and sublingual gland (0.
It has been generally accepted that the salivary gland and the mammary tumor are completely equivalent to each other as shown reproducibly by a number of histopathologic, immunohistochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features.
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands with high-grade transformation: report of 3 cases with ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion and analysis of TP53, [beta]-catenin, EGFR, and CCND1 genes.
Pediatric epithelial salivary gland tumors: Spectrum of histologies and cytogenetics at a children's hospital.
Fifty percent of all tumors derived from the minor salivary glands are reported to be malignant, adenoid cystic carcinoma being the most malignant tumor.
Because there are few salivary gland stem cells in the human mouth, the scientists plan to continue using rat salivary glands to refine the process, but eventually hope to use stem cells derived from human bone marrow or umbilical cord blood to regenerate salivary glands for humans.

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