Areas where rainfall enters groundwater systems (recharge zones) are often in elevated parts of catchments, well away from the visual impact of salinisation
. Discharge zones are where watertables are close enough to the soil surface for water (and dissolved salts) to be drawn upward by evaporation and capillary rise.
Elaborating the nature of disasters in Pakistan, Zulfiqar said that most of the disasters are hydro meteorological appearing in the shape of drought, floods, salinisation
, land erosion and storms.
One process leading to these changes in environmental condition has been progressive salinisation
of the lakes and their fringing wetlands, which in turn is due to two factors.
The remaining 20 percent of the total cost results from reduced agricultural productivity due to soil degradation, particularly salinisation
, erosion, and water logging, which has a drastic affect on the livelihoods of people in the rural areas.
"La zone concernee, qui prosperait dans la production maraEchere et primeuriste, connaEt actuellement un recul de l'activite agricole a cause de la rarete et de la salinisation
des eaux souterraines, seule ressource utilisee pour l'irrigation", a deplore le ministre de l'Agriculture et de la peche maritime, Aziz Akhannouch, lors de la ceremonie de signature.Limiter la surexploitation de la nappe Le projet aura un impact socio-economique important sur la zone et devrait ameliorer, de maniere consequente, les revenus et les conditions de vie des populations beneficiaires, a explique le ministre.
In addition to water shortage, lack of inputs, poor irrigation practices and soil salinisation
are the major factors for low crop yields.
of Land and Water Resources: Human Causes, Extent, Management and Case Studies.
Nematjan Pattaev, the Director of the WUA Omur-Suu, stressed that "one reason for the success of this programme has been the application of the mentoring method when less experienced WUAs received from their more experienced peers first-hand knowledge about efficient administration and budgeting, new irrigation methods to prevent soil salinisation
and reduce the amount of water consumed, as well as ways of conflict mediation and resolution".
On the other hand, greater precipitation increases susceptibility to flooding, and affects the rate of soil erosion and salinisation
. It moves land and soil moisture availability towards the south.
Plots of land are black from salinisation
, as if doused in oil.
Land Monitor provides land managers and administrators with baseline salinity data for monitoring changes over time and estimates of areas at risk from secondary or future salinisation
. It uses sequences of calibrated Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite images integrated with landform information derived from height data, ground truthing, and other existing mapped datasets to monitor changes in salinity and woody vegetation.
Of all the types of land degradation, water erosion ranks the highest, bringing about a loss of US $5.4 billion followed by wind erosion (US $1.8 billion) and salinisation
(US $1.5 billion).