Background: Calcium regulatory proteins-L-type Ca[sup]2+ channels (LTCCs), ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), and Na[sup]+/Ca[sup]2+ exchanger isoform 1 (NCX1) have been recognized as important protective mechanisms during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI).
Calcium regulatory proteins are mainly composed of L-type Ca[sup]2+ channels (LTCCs), ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), and Na[sup]+/Ca[sup]2+ exchanger (NCX).
Missense variants in the cardiac ryanodine receptor encoding the ryanodine receptor 2
(RYR2) gene are detected in approximately 50% of CPVT probands (17-19).
Shao et al., "In vitro modeling of ryanodine receptor 2 dysfunction using human induced pluripotent stem cells," Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol.
Gene Protein Mutation Donor cell types CASQ2 Calsequestrin 2 p.D307H Fibroblasts RyR2 Ryanodine receptor 2 p.P2328S Fibroblasts RyR2 Ryanodine receptor 2 p.F2483I Fibroblasts RyR2 Ryanodine receptor 2 p.S406L Fibroblasts Gene Reprogramming method References CASQ2 Lv (a), OSKM (b)  RyR2 RV (c), OSKM  RyR2 RV, OSKM  RyR2 RV, OSKM  LV (a): lentiviruses, RV (c): retroviruses, and OCT4 (O), SOX2 (S), KLF4 (K), and c-MYC (M) (b).
Protein-SNO Pathology Reference Dynamin-related Alzheimer disease Cho et al., 2009 protein 1  Protein disulfide Alzheimer disease Uehara et al., 2006 isomerase  Parkinson disease X-linked inhibitor Alzheimer disease Nakamura et al., of apoptosis 2010  Parkinson disease Parkin Parkinson disease Chung et al., 2004  Peroxiredoxin-2 Parkinson disease Fang et al., 2007  Ryanodine receptor 2
Heart failure Gonzalez et al., 2007  [O.sup.6]- Cancer Wei et al., 2010 alkylguanine-DNA  alkyl transferase Ryanodine receptor 1 Duchenne/ Bellinger et al., limb-girdle muscular 2009  Andersson dystrophy et al., 2012  TABLE 2: Role and targets of NO in neuromuscular dysfunctions.