miR-221: microRNA-221; ALP: alkaline phosphatase; Runx2: runt-related transcription factor 2
; Ocn: osteocalcin; qRT-PCR: quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
(a) Alkaline phosphatase (Alp); (b) osteocalcin (Ocn); (c) osteopontin (Opn); (d) runt-related transcription factor 2
(Runx2); (e) bone sialoprotein (Bsp).
Nuclear localization of runt-related transcription factor 2
Moreover, the Rux2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2
), a key factor in osteoblast differentiation was also activated.
Microgravity increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a 2 but decreased Runt-related transcription factor 2
Hoshi et al., "Contribution of runt-related transcription factor 2
to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis in mice after induction of knee joint instability," Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol.
Abbreviations ALP: Alkaline phosphatase Cbfa-1: Core-Binding factor, alpha 1 Runx2: Runt-related transcription factor 2
RANK: Receptor activator of NF-kB RANK-L: RANK ligand M-CSF: Macrophage colony-stimulation factor SP7/Osx: Osterix SOX-9: SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 TRAP: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase CTR: Calcitonin receptor.
(4,5) The disease gene has been mapped to chromosome 6p21 within a region containing core-binding factor subunit alpha-1, a member of the runt family of transcription factors Runt-related transcription factor 2
.6 This case report presents, an 11-year-old girl with severe short stature with all the features of CCD including a rare finding of complete absence of clavicles.
Runt-related transcription factor 2
is closely linked to the development of valvular calcification and regulates several osteogenic genes.
When osteoblasts differentiate, they sequentially express different markers specific to each stage of maturation, i.e., runt-related transcription factor 2
(Runx2), osterix, ALP, and osteocalcin in this order (Komori 2006; Stein et al.