Influence of body position on shoulder rotator muscle
strength during isokinetic assessment.
The addition of hip abductor and external rotator muscle
strengthening exercise to the traditional treatment was effective in improving pain and functional activities in male patients with PFPS.
The differential includes strain of gluteal, hamstring, adductor and hip external rotator muscles
, sacroiliac or hip joint disease, bony fractures/ stress fractures, avulsion injuries, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, labral injuries, hip dislocation, lumbar radiculopathies, or nerve entrapment.
In patients operated with the external rotator sparing hip approach, Josten and Trabold could not demonstrate any differences for external-internal rotator muscle
strength measurements in particular .
An internal rotation moment has been observed during the push phase of the propulsion cycle, which would indicate a need for external rotator muscle
Scapular muscle recruitment patterns and isokinetic strength ratios of the shoulder rotator muscles
in individuals with and without impingement syndrome.
 To provide optimal muscle balance and functional capability for overhead athletes, the strength of the external rotators of the glenohumeral joint should be 65 - 75% of that of the internal rotator muscles
.  Muscle-strength ratios that lie outside the proposed normative ranges may increase the risk of injury to athletes.'111 Furthermore, there is evidence that rugby union players, especially forwards, display poor antagonist/agonist muscle-strength ratios with regard to their shoulder rotator muscles
Another finding of this study was that, in throwing athletes the shoulder rotator muscles
were significantly stronger compared to non-athletic subjects.
On the other hand, the maximum isometric external rotator muscle
strength of the knee tended to be smaller in females than in males (Kiriyama et al., 2009, Wojtys et al., 2003).
The strength (truncated range average torque: TRAT), work, and angle specific torque (AST) of the hip external rotator muscle
group, through the full available active hip ER ROM, was evaluated using concentric isokenetic (30[degrees]/s) testing on a KinCom dynamometer.
In addition, the rotator muscles
balance the strength of other muscles around the shoulder joint (Most importantly, the deltoid).
We detached the piriformis, short rotator muscles
, and joint capsule from the femur during the posterolateral approach, created a few holes vertically in the intertrochanteric posterior crest before closing the surgical wound, and then attached the piriformis, short rotator muscles
, and joint capsule to the intertrochanteric crest with sutures.