Vertical compaction was performed with a n.1/2 plugger (Dentsply Sirona, York, PA, USA) at the level of the root canal orifice
. After that, all teeth were stored at 37[degrees]C for 30 days.
After the access cavity was prepared, the root canal was gently irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCI) positioned 1-2 mm below the root canal orifice
. Then the canal was dried with sterile paper points and triple antibiotics paste (TAP) was prepared (5), dressed into the root canal and left for 2 weeks.
In dilacerated teeth, the accepted basic endodontic techniques must be strictly followed, that is, good preoperative and working radiographs, unobstructed access to the root canal orifice
, as direct access as possible to the apical-third of the canal, thorough irrigation and hermetic seal.
A metallic device, 7mm in height, 2cm in diameter, and with a central opening slightly larger than the diameter of the root canal orifice
was used to hold the tooth sections.
The root canal orifice
in group D was covered with Cavit and all the surfaces were covered with two layers of nail varnish.
Root canal width (Figure 2(d)) was measured at three levels: (i) at the level of the root canal orifice
; (ii) visible canal at the root apex; and (iii) at the midpoint between root canal orifice
and the visible canal at the root apex.
The root canal orifice
is defined as the opening of the canal system at the base of the chamber where the root canal begins (9, 10).
A cone-beam computed tomography study of the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolars and the location of root canal orifices
and apical foramina in a Chinese subpopulation.
Root canal orifices
of all the specimens were sealed with glass ionomer cement followed by storage of all teeth at 37[degrees]C and 100% humidity for a week in an incubator to allow complete setting of the sealers.
The inspection of the pulp chamber floor revealed the presence of three separate root canal orifices
: one mesiobuccal, one distobuccal and one palatinal.
Exploration of the root canal orifices
resulted in finding one buccal and two palatal orifice (Initially).
New technologies such as the dental operating microscope and dental loupes should not be underes- timated as they offer magnification and illumination of the operating field and substantially improve the visualization of root canal orifices
.5 Additionally use of micro-openers properly designed access cavity cham- pagne bubble test transillumination use of piezoelectric ultrasonics looking for the rules of symmetry red line test white line test and perio-probing are important tools for locating root canal orifices