The results revealed that executives have highest role overload
and strenuous working conditions.
Within the context of academia, stressors may include role overload
, insufficient feedback, inadequate resources, lack of collegial support, and unrealistic expectations (Austin & Rice, 1998; Lease, 1999; Olsen, 1993; Olsen & Crawford, 1998; Olsen & Sorcinelli, 1992; Sorcinelli, 1994).
Research has consistently associated higher levels of role overload
with higher levels of job burnout (Cordes and Dougherty 1993; Cordes et al.
Seven job variables thought to be especially susceptible to change following an organizational downsizing were selected for investigation: role overload
, role clarity, job involvement, satisfaction with top management, satisfaction with job security, organizational commitment, and intent to turnover.
Dramatic changes in the work environment of education have resulted in role ambiguity and role overload
for school principals.
The section on organizational stressors covers the Cooper model of stress, and lists the stressors which have been well researched such as role conflict, role overload
and relationships at work.
Keenan and McBain (1979) report that although Type A personality and tolerance for ambiguity moderates the relationship between role ambiguity and job satisfaction, they fail to moderate the relationships between role overload
, role conflict, and job satisfaction.
Role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload
are widely examined individual stressors and there is a large body of literature(House & Rizzo, 1972; Mc Grath, 1976; Schuler, Aldag & Brief, 1979; Fisher & Gitelson, 1983; Jackson & Schuler, 1985; Newton & Keenan, 1987; Luszczynska & Cieslak, 2005).
Entrepreneurs with multiple task and roles might be suffering from role overload
In the organizational setting, role overload
from perceived job demands (e.
The dimension role overload
was included as it has been widely recognised as a work demand (e.
It was found that role overload
and role ambiguity were the main sources of stress and it adversely affected the quality of their service.