rifabutin


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Related to rifabutin: rifampin, rifampicin, clarithromycin, ethambutol, Rifapentine

rifabutin

 [rif″ah-bu´tin]
an antibacterial used for the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium aviumcomplex disease in patients with advanced HIV infection; administered orally.

rifabutin

Pharmacologic class: Rifamycin derivative

Therapeutic class: Antimycobacterial

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Inhibits RNA synthesis by blocking RNA transcription in susceptible organisms (mycobacteria and some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria)

Availability

Capsules: 150 mg

Indications and dosages

To prevent disseminated Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

Adults: 300 mg P.O. daily as a single dose or in two divided doses

Off-label uses

• Tuberculosis
• Prophylaxis and treatment of M. avium intracellulare in children

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Active tuberculosis

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• severe hepatic disease
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Give in divided doses twice daily with food to reduce GI upset.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, asthenia, weakness

CV: pressure sensation in chest

EENT: uveitis; discolored tears, saliva, or sputum

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, eructation, flatulence, discolored feces, anorexia

GU: discolored urine

Hematologic: eosinophilia, neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia Musculoskeletal: joint pain, myalgia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: rash, discolored skin or sweat

Other: abnormal taste, fever, flulike symptoms

Interactions

Drug-drug.Clarithromycin, itraconazole, saquinavir: reduced blood levels and efficacy of these drugs

Delavirdine: decreased delavirdine blood level, increased rifabutin blood level

Drugs metabolized by liver (such as zidovudine): altered blood levels of these drugs

Hormonal contraceptives: decreased contraceptive efficacy

Indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir: increased rifabutin blood level

Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, eosinophils: increased levels

Neutrophils, platelets, white blood cells: decreased counts

Drug-food.High-fat foods: delayed drug absorption

Patient monitoring

• Monitor CBC with white cell differential. Watch for signs and symptoms of blood dyscrasias.
• Assess nutritional status.
• Closely monitor vital signs and temperature. Stay alert for dyspnea and flulike symptoms.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take twice daily with food (but not high-fat food) if GI upset occurs. To further minimize GI upset, teach him to eat small, frequent servings of healthy food and drink plenty of fluids.
• Instruct patient to take exactly as prescribed, even after symptoms subside.

Tell patient to immediately report easy bruising or bleeding.
• Tell patient drug may turn tears, urine, and other body fluids reddish or brownish orange. Instruct him not to wear contact lenses during therapy because drug may stain them permanently.
• Inform patient that drug occasionally causes eye inflammation. Instruct him to report symptoms promptly.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until effects of drug are known.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and foods mentioned above.

rifabutin

/rif·a·bu·tin/ (rif″ah-bu´tin) an antibacterial used for the prevention of disseminated complex (MAC) disease in patients with advanced HIV infection.

rifabutin

[rif′ah-bu′tin]
an antibacterial used for the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients with advanced HIV infection. It is administered orally.

rifabutin

Mycobutin® AIDS A semisynthetic rifamycin used to prevent MAC in AIDS Pts with < 75 T4 cell/mm3, or combined with other drugs to treat MAC; it ↓ anemia, fatigue, fever, hospitalization, Karnovsky performance score, prevents ↑ alk phos seen in advanced AIDS Side effects Kidney and liver damage, BM suppression, rash, fever, GI stress. See AIDS, Mycobacterium avium-intercellulare complex.

rifabutin

A drug used to treat tuberculosis of the lungs and to prevent the development of lung TB in AIDS patients. A brand name is Mycobutin.

rifabutin, (rif´əbūt´ən),

n brand name: Mycobutin;
drug class: antimycobacterial agent;
action: inhibits deoxyribonucleic acid dependent ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase synthesis of bacterial RNA;
uses: prevention of disseminated
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease with advanced HIV infection.

rifabutin

a rifamycin antibiotic with activity against mycobacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
In March 2008, treatment with rifabutin was discontinued after pancytopenia developed.
Conversely, the addition of 2 extra drugs, such as ciprofloxacin and rifabutin, to a suppressive therapy of PPI and amoxicillin results in very high cure rates with reasonably cost-effective therapies.
Dosing of ARVs and rifabutin when prescribed concomitantly ARV dose ARV change Rifabutin dose EFV None Increase to 450 mg/day NVP None 300 mg/day ATV None Decrease to 150 mg or every second day ritonavir-boosted PIs ARV = antiretroviral; EFV = efavirenz; NVP = nevirapine; ATV = atazanavir; PIs = protease inhibitors.
Pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between darunavir in combination with low-dose ritonavir (DRV/r) and rifabutin (RFB).
pylori infections who were resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin by giving them esomeprazole 40 mg, moxifloxacin 400 mg, and rifabutin 300 mg orally once each morning for 7 days.
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was diagnosed, and she was successfully treated with an 18-month course of ethambutol, rifabutin, and clarithromycin.
Following several experiments, we ended with a cocktail of two drugs called rifabutin and macrolide antibiotic therapy (RMAT) (rifabutin [Mycobutin], and Biaxin [(clarithromycin]) that showed significant synergistic activity, and MAP was killed instantly in the tube.
That is, that somewhere between 50 to 75 percent of people with active Crohn's disease who can take rifabutin and clarithromycin treatment will get better and heal--sometimes like magic.
John's wort, lorazepam, methadone, cetirizine and rifabutin.
Despite aggressive therapy, including treatment with rifabutin, ethambutol, and azithromycin, the patient succumbed to multiple opportunistic infections and died 5 months later.
Synergistic effects of rifabutin and amphotericin B against Aspergillus in vitro.
Rifabutin (Ansamycin, Mycobutin), Adria Laboratories