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Pharmacologic class: Rifamycin derivative
Therapeutic class: Antimycobacterial
Pregnancy risk category B
Inhibits RNA synthesis by blocking RNA transcription in susceptible organisms (mycobacteria and some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria)
Capsules: 150 mg
⊘Indications and dosages
➣ To prevent disseminated Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
Adults: 300 mg P.O. daily as a single dose or in two divided doses
• Prophylaxis and treatment of M. avium intracellulare in children
• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Active tuberculosis
Use cautiously in:
• severe hepatic disease
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.
• Give in divided doses twice daily with food to reduce GI upset.
CNS: headache, asthenia, weakness
CV: pressure sensation in chest
EENT: uveitis; discolored tears, saliva, or sputum
GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, eructation, flatulence, discolored feces, anorexia
GU: discolored urine
Hematologic: eosinophilia, neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia Musculoskeletal: joint pain, myalgia
Skin: rash, discolored skin or sweat
Other: abnormal taste, fever, flulike symptoms
Drug-drug.Clarithromycin, itraconazole, saquinavir: reduced blood levels and efficacy of these drugs
Delavirdine: decreased delavirdine blood level, increased rifabutin blood level
Drugs metabolized by liver (such as zidovudine): altered blood levels of these drugs
Hormonal contraceptives: decreased contraceptive efficacy
Indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir: increased rifabutin blood level
Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, eosinophils: increased levels
Neutrophils, platelets, white blood cells: decreased counts
Drug-food.High-fat foods: delayed drug absorption
• Monitor CBC with white cell differential. Watch for signs and symptoms of blood dyscrasias.
• Assess nutritional status.
• Closely monitor vital signs and temperature. Stay alert for dyspnea and flulike symptoms.
• Advise patient to take twice daily with food (but not high-fat food) if GI upset occurs. To further minimize GI upset, teach him to eat small, frequent servings of healthy food and drink plenty of fluids.
• Instruct patient to take exactly as prescribed, even after symptoms subside.
☞ Tell patient to immediately report easy bruising or bleeding.
• Tell patient drug may turn tears, urine, and other body fluids reddish or brownish orange. Instruct him not to wear contact lenses during therapy because drug may stain them permanently.
• Inform patient that drug occasionally causes eye inflammation. Instruct him to report symptoms promptly.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until effects of drug are known.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and foods mentioned above.
rifabutin/rif·a·bu·tin/ (rif″ah-bu´tin) an antibacterial used for the prevention of disseminated complex (MAC) disease in patients with advanced HIV infection.
rifabutinMycobutin® AIDS A semisynthetic rifamycin used to prevent MAC in AIDS Pts with < 75 T4 cell/mm3, or combined with other drugs to treat MAC; it ↓ anemia, fatigue, fever, hospitalization, Karnovsky performance score, prevents ↑ alk phos seen in advanced AIDS Side effects Kidney and liver damage, BM suppression, rash, fever, GI stress. See AIDS, Mycobacterium avium-intercellulare complex.
rifabutinA drug used to treat tuberculosis of the lungs and to prevent the development of lung TB in AIDS patients. A brand name is Mycobutin.
drug class: antimycobacterial agent;
action: inhibits deoxyribonucleic acid dependent ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase synthesis of bacterial RNA;
uses: prevention of disseminated
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease with advanced HIV infection.