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[10] Brainstem encephalitis (rhombencephalitis) secondary to Listeria infection is a serious condition that may occur in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.
The most common central nervous system manifestation is meningitidis, while meningoencephalitis, rhombencephalitis, and cerebritis are less common [7].
Another case reported rhombencephalitis in which the patient presented with severe occipital headache and this resulted in brain edema and death in two months [5].
Infection involving the brainstem is called rhombencephalitis, and it may affect the trigeminal nuclei.
Eighth nerve herpetic neuritis and contra lateral rhombencephalitis and mesencephalitis on contrast enhanced MR imaging.
Mesencephalitis and rhombencephalitis. Br Med J 1951;2(4723):77-81.
Early symptoms and outcome of Listeria monocytogenes rhombencephalitis: 14 adult cases.
Rhombencephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in humans and ruminants: a zoonosis on the rise?
Bickerstaff and Cloake published a report of three cases they called "mesencephalitis and rhombencephalitis".
(1) A distinctive form of rhombencephalitis also exists, manifesting as asymmetric cranial nerve palsies, hemiparesis, and coma.
Recent examples are the emergence of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which was responsible for large hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks associated with rare but severe rhombencephalitis in Asia, and an EV-D68 epidemic associated with severe respiratory infections (1,2).