Stipe 12-15 x 1-3 (apex) 3-6 mm (base), central, terete, tapered at the apex, pale grey (1B1) to yellowish white (1A2), consistency fleshy, smooth to slightly striated, with white mycelial pad and rhizomorphs
These ectomycorrhizae are characterized morphologically by dichotomously branched ramifications with plectenchymatous inner and outer mantle surfaces, differentiated rhizomorphs
, and emanating hyphae.
A Stigmaria (lycopsid rhizomorph
) with a pyritized rind, which has a [delta][sup.34]S value of 31[per thousand], was recovered from poorly exposed mudrocks in the intertidal zone at ~949 m (Wagner et al.
8).Basidiomata gregarious pyriforme 3050 mm highA- 1535 mm broad off-white when young brown when mature; rhizomorphs
white encrusted with particles of soil and other debris material.
Dark brown coming near to black, Black, penetrating soil with glossy, densely penetrating top underground tree remains, soil, monopodially ramifying on monopodially ramifying.
Volva present at the base of the stipe, 24-31 X 21-25 mm, saccate, yellowish white (4A2), smooth, with basal rhizomorphs
. Basidiospores 3.5-5 X 1.7-2.5 pm, ellipsoid, smooth and thin-walled.
Fine structural features of rhizomorphs
(sensu lato) produced by four species of lichen fungi.
Sterile base: Well-developed, up to about 1/3 of the fruiting body, interior dull white with small chambers; base bearing many white mycelial threads (rhizomorphs
"This fungus lives in a below-ground habitat, spreading very slowly outward from tree to tree along roots or by growth through the soil using special shoestringlike structures called rhizomorphs
," says Catherine Parks, a biologist with the Forest Service's research station in Portland.
Check the soil for the black "bootlace" strands, or rhizomorphs
, that the fungus puts out to search for a new source of food.
With root rots, where there is a free spread of mycelium (Rosellinia sp), or rhizomorphs
(Armillaria), an integrated approach with selective fungicides and biocontrol agents will be useful.
is a genus of agaricoid, mushroom-forming fungi, which are characterized by the presence of partial veil usually forming an annulus or leaving remnants at the pileus margin, adnate to adnexed lamellae and well-developed rhizomorphs
on stipe base, which are densely covered by spiniform crystals called acanthocytes, the latter considered a diagnostic feature of the genus (Farr, 1980; Cortez & Silveira, 2008).