Patients also recorded significant improvements compared to placebo for rhinitis and rhinorrhoea
(p less than or equal to 0.
The least common cause of CSF rhinorrhoea is post-traumatic as a complication of a skull base fracture.
Non-traumatic causes of CSF rhinorrhoea make up only 3 - 4% of cases.
Sense of smell and rhinorrhoea
also were assessed as secondary endpoints.
Effect of medications on symptoms of allergic rhinitis Symptoms Sneezing Rhinorrhoea
Nasal Itching Ocular obstuction symptoms Intranasal +++ +++ +++ +++ ++ steroids Oral +++ +++ -- +++ + antihistamines Intranasal + + -- + -- antihistamines Intranasal -- -- +++ decongestants Anticholinergics -- +++ Leukotriene + + ++ ?
4) They have potent anti-inflammatory effects and therefore have a significant effect on nasal obstruction, sneezing, rhinorrhoea
, itching and ocular symptoms.
Intrasphenoidal encephalocele and spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea
The disease may present with nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea
, hypoacousia, and cranial nerve palsies.
Besides the symptoms of rhinorrhoea
, sneezing, itch, nasal congestion, postnasal drip and decreased sense of smell, trigger factors and relieving factors should be established.
The ARIA guidelines encourage a phased approach to the treatment of allergic rhinitis, commencing with antihistamines in those in whom the disease is short lived, with rhinorrhoea
, sneezing and itching as predominant symptoms, but to also use intranasal steroids in those who are more severe, even if the disease is short lived.