Exclusion criteria included personal or family history of allergy or hypersensitivity to testosterone or related drugs, past history of anaphylaxis or angioedema, any major illness in the past 3 months or any clinically significant ongoing chronic medical illness (e.g., congestive heart failure, hepatitis, pancreatitis, etc.), prior nasal fractures, subjects with chronic mucosal inflammatory disorders (pemphigus or Sjogren's syndrome, rhinitis sicca), subjects with sinus disease (acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, allergic fungal sinusitis), history of nasal surgery (turbinoplasty, septoplasty, rhinoplasty or sinus surgery), and subjects demonstrating a serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) [greater than or equal to] 4 ng/mL.
Subjects with mucosal inflammatory disorders, specifically pemphigus, or Sjogren's syndrome, rhinitis sicca 13.
Duration and severity of both AR and NAR were classified according to Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) recommendations ; (c) rhinitis sicca
, in patients referring the subjective sensation of "dry nose," coupled with visible dry nasal mucosa and atrophic nasal turbinates and Sjogren's syndrome ; (d) chronic rhinosinusitis with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps, in cases of nasal blockage, nasal drip, facial pain, reduction of smell, associated to endoscopic nasal signs of polyps, mucopurulent discharge, and/or mucosal edema, according to European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps .
It is also known as sclerotic rhinitis, dry rhinitis, rhinitis sicca
, and open nose syndrome.
However IT remains controversial because of the bleeding associated with this its effects on nasal physiology and fear of subsequent rhinitis sicca
and secondary atrophic rhinitis.
Various studies have scientifically confirmed the effectiveness of its preservative-free nasal ointment (predominantly) or spray application forms in treating rhinitis sicca anterior or after nasal and paranasal surgery [63-69].
A clinical reduction in the formation of dried nasal mucus was observed after an 8-week treatment with dexpanthenol in a spray application form in patients with chronic rhinitis sicca as well .
Kehrl and Sonnemann  and Hahn [ 80] verified positive dynamics in the subjective sensory scale in terms of nasal airway obstruction among dexpanthenol spray users with rhinitis sicca. Significant improvement of nasal obstruction showed a saline aerosol containing hyaluronic acid in the phase of functional regeneration during sinonasal remodeling, as described by Macchi et al.
The positive influence of dexpanthenol preparations on the subjective symptoms in patients with rhinitis sicca [65, 80] and their high acceptance were, yet again, able to confirm the clinically relevant and statistically significant superiority of the substance.
Besides its Ectoin[R] Allergy Nasal Spray 2%, it is offering nasal sprays for the symptomatic treatment of acute rhinosinusitis and rhinitis sicca
, eye drops for the treatment of symptoms in case of an allergic conjunctivitis or dry eye syndrome or creams which alleviate symptoms in case of inflammatory skin diseases.
The Ayr brand includes a saline mist, nasal drops and a saline nasal gel with aloe vera formulated to soothe and moisturize nasal passages irritated by allergic rhinitis, rhinitis sicca
, epistaxis and nasal irritation as a consequence of hormonal changes during pregnancy.
Bleeding, crusting, rhinitis sicca
and atrophic rhinitis, synechiae and recurrence.