The cause of UI is considered to be multifactorial, including disruption in connective tissue supports of the urethrovesical junction leading to urethral hypermobility, pelvic floor muscle weakness, nerve damage to the urethral rhabdosphincter
related to pudendal neuropathy or pelvic plexopathy, and atrophic changes of the urethra mucosa and submucosa.
Early continence recovery after open radical prostatectomy with restoration of the posterior aspect of the rhabdosphincter
. Eur Urol.
Lack of the complete circular rhabdosphincter
and a distinct circular smooth muscle layer around the proximal urethra in elderly Japanese women: an anatomical study.
Alternatively, some clinical trials targeted cell implantation into the urethral sphincter to restore the function of a weakened rhabdosphincter
Three methods of continent urinary diversions can be achieved: orthoptic (urethral rhabdosphincter
controlled), cathertizable (self-catheterization required), and uterosigmoidostomy (anal sphincter controlled) (Costa, 2013).
Research has suggested that apoptosis of the rhabdosphincter
cells may be one of the primary causes of sphincter dysfunction in older post-menopausal women.
At the level of the apex, the external rhabdosphincter
was progressively transected approximately 2 to 3 millimeters away from the apex.
Transurethral ultrasound: evaluation of anatomy and function of the rhabdosphincter
of the male urethra.
Konwalinka, "Age dependent apoptosis and loss of rhabdosphincter
cells," The Journal of Urology, vol.
The PMC sends impulses to motor neurons in Onuf's nucleus, and axons from these neurons travel in the pudendal nerve and stimulate the rhabdosphincter
to contract (Andersson, 2007).
The role of the striated sphincter, the rhabdosphincter
, has received little attention, despite the fact that it forms a muscular coat that surrounds the urethra ventrally and laterally.
When sufficient myoblasts and fibroblasts have been cultivated, the patient receives transurethral, ultrasound-guided injections of autologous fibroblasts into the urethral submucosa and myoblasts into the rhabdosphincter
in an outpatient procedure.