presence of Class III malocclusion associated with maxillary retrusion
Al realizar las variaciones del posicionamiento del punto A en sentido anteroposterior respecto a la perpendicular del Nasion, se observo en este estudio una aparente retrusion
de grado ligero con la terapeutica funcional mas en sentido anteroposterior con las Pistas Planas que con el Bionator, obteniendose significacion estadistica con el primer aparato y no con el segundo, ambos siguen quedando en la norma.
In both systems, one can observe improvement of the facial profile in terms of skeletal effect, dental effects, inhibition of maxillary growth, extrusion and retrusion
of upper incisor, intrusion and protrusion of lower incisors, distal tipping of upper molars, mesial tipping of lower molars, posterior rotation of occlusal plane and forward movement of the pogonion (8, 9, 12).
Caption: Figure 1: Index patient showing facial dysmorphism (prominent eyebrow, low set ears, midfacial retrusion
, and mild prognathism).
Facial analysis showed a well-positioned maxilla despite a hypodivergent face pattern, with a reduction of tooth exposure upon smiling, and favorable chin projection associated with accentuated and deep labiomental fold due to retrusion
of the inferior alveolar segment (Figures 1 and 2).
Her postoperative course was complicated by relapse and significant bilateral condylar resorption, with progressive mandibular retrusion
. Clinical examination revealed a retrognathic mandible, class II skeletal and dental malocclusion with an anterior open bite (Figures 9a, 10a and 11a).
Skeletal Class III malocclusion may result from: (1) Maxillary retrusion
, (2) mandibular protrusion, or (3) combined maxillary retrusion
and mandibular protrusion.
The temporomandibular joint of both sides are not independent of each other in function and peculiar type of synovial joint as the mouth opens and closes with the rotation of mandible around the terminal hinge axis of lower compartment as well as the transverse axis of the ramus as a result of the translation in the upper compartment of the joint with the protrusion of condyles and the retrusion
of the gonion.
Cases of mandibular setback should perform exercises recruiting the mandibular retrusion
Moreover, extraction is not recommended in patients with generalized spacing of teeth, deep-bite, hyperdivergent facial profile, or mandibular retrusion
because it will damage the facial profile .
Galeotti et al., "Efficacy of the Sander bite-jumping appliance in growing patients with mandibular retrusion
: a randomized controlled trial," Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, vol.
(12) El craneo es braquicefalico, un tercio medio facial hipoplasico el cual causa una retrusion
orbital derivando a un exoftalmos en todos los casos.