retrovirus


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retrovirus

 [ret´ro-vi″rus]
any member of a large family of RNA viruses that includes the lentiviruses and certain oncoviruses, given this name because they carry reverse transcriptase.
human endogenous r's (HERV) retroviruslike sequences found in the human genome, thought to constitute the remains of true retroviruses that were absorbed through evolution; at least one is thought to be linked to expression of tumor cells.

ret·ro·vi·rus

(ret'rō-vī'rŭs),
Any virus of the family Retroviridae.

Retroviruses are potent disease agents, but they have also served as invaluable research tools in molecular biology. In 1979, the molecular biologist Richard Mulligan used a genetically altered retrovirus to trigger the production of hemoglobin in vitro by monkey kidney cells. His technique for using retroviruses to import alien genes into cells has been widely adopted. Medical researchers have also explored retroviral transport as a means of gene therapy. However, evidence suggesting that retroviruses may play a role in carcinogenesis raises questions as to the safety of their use in gene therapy. see oncogene.

retrovirus

(rĕt′rō-vī′rəs, rĕt′rə-vī′-)
n. pl. retrovi·ruses
Any of a family of viruses, many of which produce tumors, that contain RNA and reverse transcriptase, including HIV.

ret′ro·vi′ral adj.

retrovirus

Virology An RNA virus that encodes reverse transcriptase so that its RNA can be transcribed into DNA in a host cell; modified retroviruses are used as vectors to introduce genes–or portions thereof–of interest into eukaryotic cells. See Cloning vector, DNA, Eukaryote, Gene, HIV, HTLV, Reverse transcriptase, RNA, Rous sarcoma virus, Spumavirus, Transciption, Virus.

ret·ro·vi·rus

(ret'rō-vī'rŭs)
Any virus of the family Retroviridae. A virus with RNA core genetic material; requires the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into proviral DNA.

retrovirus

A virus with a GENOME consisting of a single strand of RNA from which DUPLEX DNA is synthesized under the catalytic influence of an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. This is the reverse of the much more common DNA to RNA process. The AIDS virus HIV is a retrovirus.

retrovirus

an RNA VIRUS that infects animal CELLS and replicates by first being converted to double-stranded DNA, with the ENZYME REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE. (Retroviruses are so called because the information flows from RNA to DNA.) The DNA copy of the RNA GENOME so formed integrates into the host's DNA. There is a number of groups of retroviruses, including the spumaviruses, for example the human foamy virus; the lentiviruses, for example HIV; and the oncoviruses (RNA tumour viruses) which are divided into A-type, B-type, C-type and D-type.

Retrovirus

A family of RNA viruses containing a reverse transcriptase enzyme which allows the viruses' genetic information to become part of the genetic information of the host cell upon replication.

ret·ro·vi·rus

(ret'rō-vī'rŭs)
Any virus of the family Retroviridae. A virus with RNA core genetic material; requires the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into proviral DNA.
References in periodicals archive ?
Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is necessary and sufficient to induce a contagious lung cancer in sheep.
Dr Robert Yolken, from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, who led the study, said: 'A significant portion of the people with schizophrenia had active expression of the retrovirus, whereas individuals without schizophrenia lacked the footprint.'
Shimizu's team developed the retrovirus jointly with the Okazaki National Research Institutes in Aichi Prefecture.
A retrovirus has the unique ability to actually insert its genetic information directly into the genetic information of the infected host cells.
The start of the replication process is the production by the retrovirus of a protein called Gag.
Proteases of animal retroviruses and their biological function had been characterized years earlier in animal retroviruses and in the first human retrovirus to be discovered, the leukemia-causing retrovirus called HTLV-1.
Ecology and social organization of African tropical forest primates: aid in understanding retrovirus transmission.
* Is HIV "a conventional retrovirus with a very simple genetic organization"?
ALS patients have also been found to have unusual retrovirus activity in the parts of the brain damaged by the disease.
Hunter's book paints a picture of a continent about to be engulfed in social, economic, and political chaos, all because of 1 small retrovirus.
Human retrovirus protocols; virology and molecular biology.
For a decade, scientists, government officials, physicians, journalists, public-service ads, TV shows, and movies have told them that AIDS is caused by a retrovirus called HIV.