Pneumatised uncinate process was seen in 1 patient (1.16%) while retroverted
uncinate was present in 2 patients (2.32%) in our study while it was reported to be 2% and 16% respectively, by Gouripur K et al.
The risk factors predisposing transmigration of intrauterine device include: inadequacy of clinician's skills, history of abortion, retroverted
uterine axis, insertion in puerperium period and congenital uterine anomalies 7.
Risk factors include retroverted
uterus, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, posterior wall leiomyomas, and deep sacral concavity and an overlying promontory [5-7].
The uterine angle deviation, in relation to the longitudinal axis of the body, changes from a particularly retroverted
position to a more anteverted one.
During examination, it is recommended that the speculum be attached to the device, but this sometimes hinders the complete view of the transformation zone, especially in women with a retroverted
Plain radiography and computed tomography (CT scan) showed L5 spina bifida occulta, bilateral L5 pars defect, dysplastic L5S1 facets, trapezoidal L5 vertebral body, retroverted
sacrum with rounding of proximal endplate, and complete anterior descent of the L5 vertebrae to the sacrum (Figures 2(a)-2(d)).
Caption: Figure 1: Endoscopic appearance before and after resection (retroverted
Physical exam findings include tenderness or nodules in the cul-de-sac or uterosacral ligaments, pain with uterine movement, enlarged adnexal masses, or fixation of adnexa or uterus in a retroverted
The bimanual vaginal examination showed a mobile retroverted
uterus, with normal dimensions.
The same situation can occur when the acetabular component is retroverted
. Conversely, if a high offset prosthesis is used in a smaller person with shortened abductors, it can cause inability to reduce the hip, which may force the surgeon to shorten the limb to facilitate reduction.
Per vaginal examination revealed retroverted
normal sized uterus with free fornices.
(1, 2, 5) Grossman and colleagues (4) define TTO as the sum of hip external rotation (HER), tibial torsion (TT; i.e., the slight external rotation of the tibia at the knee resulting from the normal twist in the shaft of the tibia along its longitudinal axis in a retroverted
direction, which can produce a natural toe-out of the foot relative to the tibia), and contributions from the foot.