retrospective study

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Related to retrospective study: Prospective study, Case Control Study, Cohort study


a careful examination of a phenomenon; see also design.
cohort study prospective study.
cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s.
electrophysiological s's (EPS) studies from within the heart of its electrical activation and response to electrical stimuli and certain drugs. In general they include intravenous and/or intra-arterial placement of one or more electrode catheters at sites in the atria, ventricles, or coronary sinus, and sometimes the pulmonary artery or aorta. They record activity or stimulate the heart at various rates and cadences and are aids in the evaluation of electrophysiologic properties such as automaticity, conduction, and refractoriness. They also initiate and terminate tachycardias, map the sequence of activation, and aid in evaluation of patients for various forms of therapy and for the response to therapy. During these studies catheter ablation procedures, such as radio frequency ablation and electrical ablation, may be performed.
flow study uroflowmetry.
longitudinal study one in which participants, processes, or systems are studied over time, with data being collected at multiple intervals. The two main types are prospective studies and retrospective studies. It contrasts with a cross-sectional s.
pilot study a smaller version of a proposed research study, conducted to refine the methodology of the later one. It should be as similar to the proposed study as possible, using similar subjects, the same setting, and the same techniques of data collection and analysis.
prospective study an epidemiologic study in which the groups of individuals (cohorts) are selected on the bases of factors that are to be examined for possible effects on some outcome. For example, the effect of exposure to a specific risk factor on the eventual development of a particular disease can be studied. The cohorts are then followed over a period of time to determine the incidence rates of the outcomes being studied as they relate to the original factors in question. Called also cohort study.

The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
retrospective study an epidemiologic study in which participating individuals are classified as either having some outcome (cases) or lacking it (controls); the outcome may be a specific disease, and the persons' histories are examined for specific factors that might be associated with that outcome. Cases and controls are often matched with respect to certain demographic or other variables but need not be. As compared to prospective studies, retrospective studies suffer from drawbacks: certain important statistics cannot be measured, and large biases may be introduced both in the selection of controls and in the recall of past exposure to risk factors. The advantage of the retrospective study is its small scale, usually short time for completion, and its applicability to rare diseases, which would require study of very large cohorts in prospective studies. See also prospective s.
urinary flow study uroflowmetry.
voiding pressure study simultaneous measurement of bladder contraction, urinary flow, and sphincter electromyogram.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

retrospective study

Case-control study Epidemiology An epidemiologic study that analyzes data collected before a certain point in time, to determine if past events are related to the present distribution of disease; a study–eg, case control study in which investigators select groups of Pts who have already been treated and analyze data from the events experienced by these Pts. Cf Prospective study.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Age incidence was max in 5-12 years; however, miscellaneous group neonates and infants were under 1 year of age in retrospective study and < 12 years of age in prospective study.
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A retrospective study of 183 cases.
[sup][18] In another single center retrospective study in Shanghai, contrast media and chemotherapeutics were the most common medications implicated in drug-induced AKI.
In retrospective study according to hospital data 61,000 patient attended Dermatology OPD during above duration.
All of the 7,319 pregnant women in the retrospective study were receiving 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) because they had experienced at least one spontaneous preterm delivery (SPTD).
Reddy, a senior biostatistician at the Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, and her colleagues reported a retrospective study of 1,721 men with prostate cancer who were treated at the facility from 19861996.
In this retrospective study, 27 metastatic CRC patients previously exposed to irinotecan and/or oxaliplatin were treated with the FOLFIRI-3 regimen as second-line therapy.
However, this is a very small retrospective study and clearly merits repetition in a large prospective series before these interesting results can be confirmed.
The retrospective study of surgical patients previously mentioned concludes that designing patients' rooms such that windows look out onto a garden can positively impact medication use and hospital length of stay.
In this retrospective study, 341 nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were taken from children (age 2 days-12 years) hospitalized with respiratory tract infections in 2004 in the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.
In a retrospective study of clozapine, 20 children and adolescents with treatment-refractory schizophrenia showed significant decreases in three indices of aggression--administration of emergency oral medications, administration of emergency injectable medications, and seclusion events--after 6 months of treatment.
Women exposed to abuse, violence and family strife in childhood are more likely than those without such experiences to have a teenage pregnancy; the greater the number of adverse childhood experiences, the higher the likelihood of pregnancy, according to a retrospective study of women attending a primary care clinic in San Diego.