12,18] A variety of devices have also been designed to minimize stone retropulsion
and increase ureteroscopic efficiency.
Plain C-spine X-rays and multislice CT of the C-spine were normal, however CT of the thoracic spine demonstrated a comminuted fracture of T7, a burst fracture of T8 with dislocation at T7/T8 and significant retropulsion
of bony fragments into the spinal canal, suggesting a high likelihood of spinal cord injury at this level.
Plain X-ray films (anteroposterior and lateral views) of the lumbar spine showed vertebral body fractures at L1 and L2, with slight retropulsion
and posterior listhiasis of L1 on L2.
Dorsal MRI examination revealed pathologic signal changes in the T8 and T9 vertebrae bodies and intervertebral disc with retropulsion
His gait showed retropulsion
with wide base sustentation.
Objective: It was aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of Stone Cone[TM] and NTrap[TM] for preventing retropulsion
in ureterorenoscopic stone surgery.
Progressive flexion forces can cause a large fracture of the anterior portion of the cervical vertebral body with retropulsion
of the posterior portion of the vertebral body into the spinal canal leading to the "flexion teardrop injury" (Figure 5).
An MRI of the spine in April 1998 demonstrated a burst fracture of T12 causing increased kyphus at that level, with retropulsion
of the separated fragments posteriorly.
There is marked retropulsion
with a loss of protective/postural reflexes.
Table 1 Anterior and posterior vascular syndromes (a) Syndrome Localization Anterior (carotid) artery syndromes Middle cerebral artery Expressive aphasia Dominant posterior frontal lobe Receptive aphasia Dominant superior temporal lobe Weakness of arm and/or leg Contralateral (to weakness) parietal lobe Loss of lateral visual fields Contralateral parietal lobe Anterial cerebral artery Weakness of leg Medial (parafalcine) Posterior (vertebrobasilar) artery parietal lobe syndromes Vertigo, nystagmus that Cerebellum changes with the direction of gaze, cranial nerve palsies, Brainstem retropulsion
Hemiparesis, hemisensory loss, of one-half of the body, swallowing difficulty Lacunar syndromes (These do not have the "cortical signs" of, e.
132 Normal 36 18 50% Retropulsion
44 25 57% Absence of response 30 19 63% Very unstable 8 8 100% UPDRS Dyskinesias-No.
The Participants' PD Symptoms Before Journey, The First Year (N=5) Participant Tremor I Marked in amplitude II Mild in amplitude intermittently present III Absent IV Absent V Slight, infrequently present Participant Dyskinesia I Severe hypokinesia II Moderate hypokinesia III Moderately involuntary movements IV Mild hypokinesia V Mild hypokinesia Participant Rigidity I Mild II Mild III Absent IV Absent V Mild Participant Postural Instability I Absence of postural response II Retropulsion
IV Normal V Retropulsion