retrograde

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retrograde

 [ret´ro-grād]
1. moving backward or against the usual direction of flow.
2. degenerating, deteriorating, or catabolic.

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād),
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
3. Used in neuroscience to describe distal-proximal flow, movement, or transport in an axon toward its cell body, or degeneration of an axon proximal to a point of injury, such degenerative changes may extend to, and include, the cell body.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro- + gradior, to go]

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād)
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro-, back + gradior, to go]

retrograde

A going backwards or a reversion of the usual sequence.

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād)
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro-, back + gradior, to go]
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1 patient, it was not possible to negotiate the stent from above; instead, a cystoscope was used to stent the area retrogradely. There were 2 (6.66%) minor intraoperative complications in the open group: stone fragmentation and stone migration.
The cardiac vagal neurons were retrogradely labeled with the fluorescent dye 1,1 '-dioctadecyl 3,3,3',3' tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) (Bouairi et al.
Compromise of coronary perfusion, such as can be seen in arterial switch operations, in the retrogradely perfused coronaries post-Norwood palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome or any other procedure involving coronary manipulation (e.g.
Combined with previous results on the role of somatic and synaptic protein synthesis, these findings suggest that molecules generated directly or indirectly via protein synthesis in the synapse in response to 5-HT might be transported retrogradely back to soma to trigger LTF-related cellular events, including modulation of gene expression.
They were rested supine and an intravenous cannula was inserted retrogradely into a superficial hand vein and kept patent by flushing with heparinized saline (Hep Sal; CP Pharmaceuticals).
However, in these flaps, the ulnar palmar digital artery is ligated and circulation is supplied retrogradely through the digital artery of the fifth finger.
When applied intramuscularly, BoNT blocks synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and, in addition, is transported retrogradely to the motoneuron cell body and possibly also transcytosed to afferent synaptic terminals [13-16].
Other research has also found that BDNF can be retrogradely transported through motoneurons from the skeletal muscles to the spinal cord [81-82].
Two new insufflation tubes were then placed by the surgeons--the proximal ends being passed retrogradely via the new larger ET, the tracheal ends being inserted into the left and right main bronchi.
After passing through the skin--especially broken skin--the viruses are transported retrogradely along dendrites of sensory neurons to the dorsal root ganglion, where they remain dormant until a stress situation triggers anterograde translocation along the dendrites back to the skin (Kennedy and Chaudhuri 2002; Terasaki et al.
To facilitate identification, the motoneurons were retrogradely labeled with fluorescent dye (AlexaFluor 594 biocytin, Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) before the brain was sliced.