retrograde flow

retrograde flow

The flow of fluid in a direction opposite to that considered normal.
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Ligation at the cardiac side as a sole procedure is often ineffective because of retrograde flow, so the vessels must be obstructed or embolized on the cranial side as well.
Using Doppler echocardiography, good visualization of the dilated RCA with retrograde flow into the left coronary artery and pulmonary artery along with septal collateralization is diagnostic in 90% of cases.
Metastases to the vagina are thought to originate from the retrograde flow of the left renal vein to the ovarian vein and uterovaginal plexus [8].
In detail, the right coronary artery (RCA) was dilated just after its origin and along the vessel's entire length to a maximum diameter up to 43 mm and presenting with a thrombosed lumen, significant postaneurysm stenosis, and retrograde flow from the left coronary artery.
When PIVC-based aspiration is performed, the blood supply must come from the cannulated vein in which the catheter is placed with either peripheral to central flow around the catheter or retrograde flow to the catheter tip from a more central segment of the vein (Figure 1).
CAG and CTA revealed inflow from the right coronary artery (RCA) to the pulmonary artery (PA) through multiple collateral vessels and a retrograde flow of the LMCA that verified an ALCAPA diagnosis [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b.{Figure 1}
Conclusion: Cerebral venous air embolism may occur after pneumatosis intestinalis by a retrograde flow of air from the mesenteric veins and portal vein.
Retrograde flow, which is a predictor of high-grade carotid stenosis, can be seen in some patients.
Emboli can flow to regional lymphatics, then to the thoracic duct and arrive in the head and neck region by retrograde flow through intercostal, mediastinal, or supraclavicular lymph vessels.
Its "counterpulsation" action causes inflation in diastole, which increases coronary perfusion via retrograde flow, while deflation during systole reduces afterload and increases forward blood flow [2].
JVR is characterized by a retrograde flow in the internal jugular veins (IJVs) during Valsalva-like maneuvers (VM) or spontaneously [10].

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