CAG and CTA revealed inflow from the right coronary artery (RCA) to the pulmonary artery (PA) through multiple collateral vessels and a retrograde flow
of the LMCA that verified an ALCAPA diagnosis [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b.
Conclusion: Cerebral venous air embolism may occur after pneumatosis intestinalis by a retrograde flow
of air from the mesenteric veins and portal vein.
This retrograde flow
leads to further exacerbation of ocular ischemia by further reducing retrobulbar blood flow due to the vascular steal phenomenon.
Emboli can flow to regional lymphatics, then to the thoracic duct and arrive in the head and neck region by retrograde flow
through intercostal, mediastinal, or supraclavicular lymph vessels.
of contrast medium from the left renal vein to the left ovarian vein, and uterovaginal venous plexuses and subsequently to the right ovarian vein has been demonstrated angiographically.
In experienced centres it is routine to engage both Left main coronary artery and Right coronary artery with the guide catheters for simultaneous injection and seeing entire coronary tree for tracing the retrograde flow
in occluded artery.
Here, we report the case of a patient presenting a complete occlusion of the arterial bypass in which renal graft perfusion was partially maintained by retrograde flow
from collateral arteries in the distal end of the aortobifemoral bypass.
High-risk areas include the glabella, nasal dorsum, and anteromedial cheek/tear trough due to retrograde flow
of a filler embolus to the ophthalmic artery from anastomoses with the angular, dorsal nasal, and supratrochlear arteries.
3,4) The pathogenesis of varicocele is retrograde flow
into the spermatic vein.
In this setting, the distal subclavian artery "steals" blood from the posterior circulation of the brain by means of retrograde flow
through the ipsilateral vertebral artery.
Thus, varicocele formation may be the result of an absent or defective valve, which allows retrograde flow
More advanced diaphragm discs are composed of a latex-free silicone membrane set in a closed, standby position for improved positional performance, delivering a seal mechanism that avoids a retrograde flow
even at the lowest backflow rates of 0.