retrograde

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retrograde

 [ret´ro-grād]
1. moving backward or against the usual direction of flow.
2. degenerating, deteriorating, or catabolic.

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād),
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
3. Used in neuroscience to describe distal-proximal flow, movement, or transport in an axon toward its cell body, or degeneration of an axon proximal to a point of injury, such degenerative changes may extend to, and include, the cell body.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro- + gradior, to go]

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād)
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro-, back + gradior, to go]

retrograde

A going backwards or a reversion of the usual sequence.

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād)
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro-, back + gradior, to go]
References in periodicals archive ?
(ii) Thermal analysis (including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)) that provide basic information on starch retrogradation. As an example, DSC can measure the enthalpy associated with amylopectin recrystallization and monitors the progressive magnitude of staling endotherm [83]
Composition, physicochemical properties and retrogradation characteristics of native, oxidized, acetylated and acid-thinned new cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) starch.
The degermed white maize flour stands a better change for application in confectionary than the degermed yellow maize flour owing to appreciably higher stability and correspondingly lower retrogradation.
Aart Mateboer, director of food enzymes at DuPont Industrial Biosciences, explained: "Our enzyme complexes delay starch retrogradation and other factors believed to be responsible for staling ...
while the right of primogeniture has maintained nearly a stationary condition, or has perhaps caused even a retrogradation in the number of landed proprietors.
Montaigne invokes the notion of a microcosm to refer to all the pieces and parts that human philosophers rely on in their efforts to work out this organization: "Il n'y a pas plus de retrogradation, trepidation, accession, reculement, ravissement, aux astres et corps celestes, qu'ils en ont forge en ce pauvre petit corps humain" ["There is no more retrogradation, trepidation, accession, recession, reversal, in the stars and heavenly bodies, than they have forged in this poor little human body"] (537).
This process slows the retrogradation that occurs in cooling, and plasticizes the starch, making it behave like a thermoplastic and increasing its shelf life by years.
Continuous butanol fermentation and feed starch retrogradation: butanol fermentation sustainability using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101, Journal of Biotechnology 115(2): 179-187.