It is challenging to solve the anteroposterior problems in adults with Class II malocclusion and mandible retrognathism
. The main goal of treatment for skeletal Class II in growing patients is to obtain "lengthening" of the mandible.1 Skeletal Class II malocclusion can result from either maxillary protrusion, mandibular retrusion, or a combination of the two.2 Treatment plan of these patients should be directed towards to solve the dentoskeletal disharmony in order to obtain favorable facial aesthetics.3
These malocclusions, which are primarily etiologically caused by genetics, involve mandibular prognathism, maxillary retrognathism
, or a combination of these two conditions (2-3).
Cephalometric evaluation of maxillary retrognathism
cases treated with FR-3 appliance.
Effect of removable functional appliances on mandibular length in patients with class II with retrognathism
: systematic review and meta-analysis.
As well as the new condition sequelae: open bite, retrognathism
, high and narrow palate among others (11).
Skeletal Class III malocclusion can be manifested as maxillary retrognathism
, mandibular prognathism, or a combination of both.
Studies on the multifactorial etiology of Class III malocclusions show that maxillary retrognathism
is as common as mandibular prognathism [3, 5].
an increased craniocervical angle, is connected with a large anterior and small posterior facial height, reduced sagittal craniofacial dimensions, large inclination of the mandible compared to the anterior cranial base and nasal plane, facial retrognathism
, large angle of the cranial base and reduced nasopharyngeal space.
(2012) defined chin prognathism at 6 mm and chin retrognathism
at 10 mm and associated this with the need for surgical modification for all those involved in the study, showing that certain parameters are cross-sectional in today's society.
(3) The long-term complications of intra--and extracapsular fractures, such as development of facial asymmetry or mandibular retrognathism
and anterior open bite, as well as ankylosis of TMJ or painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD), seem rare.
The risk score was developed between 0 to 10 taking into account 5 variables-Weight in kg, Head and neck mobility (Degrees), Mandibular mobility, Retrognathism
, Prominence of upper incisors.
Considering the risk factors for oral dental injuries, 71.2%, 9.09%, and 4.54% of the patients had maximum mouth opening (MMO), short thick neck, and retrognathism