In our study, the baby with hearing loss who had been administered ototoxic medication, also had CMV infection, osteopetrosis and retrognathia
and was admitted in the NICU for 6 days.
OSA is now recognized not only as SDB but also as a syndrome involving multiple organs that increases the risks of heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascu- lar-related mortality; moreover, it is causally related to hypertension.4 Obesity is the most important reversible risk factor for OSA.7 In non obese patients, craniofacial anomalies like micrognathia and retrognathia
may also predispose to OSA.
In addition, for patients who have a maxillofacial skeletal dysmorphology that is associated with OSA, mandibular retrognathia
, retrogenia and the position of the hyoid bone may also contribute to airway difficulties during attempted intubation as well as during open airway sedation (52).
Classically, there is some degree of retrognathia
, and various degrees of clefting of the lip and mandible may be present.
(6) The abnormal craniofacial characteristics include retrognathia
, micrognathia, inferior positioning of hyoid bone, long and large soft palate, large tongue etc.
Reported risk factors for OSA include elevated BMI, asthma or respiratory allergies, and narrow upper airway (micrognathia, retrognathia
, crowded oropharynx, ogival hard palate, narrow nasal passage).
Successful airway management of an infant or child with moderate to severe retrognathia
first requires recognition of a potential problem.
The reason for the skeletal class II malocclusion could be maxillary prognathism, mandibular retrognathia
, or a combination of both (1).
Other defects like drooping of eye lids (ptosis), micrognathia or retrognathia
or defects in vertebrae might also be associated.
In the long standing cases, facial asymmetry is similar to mild hemifacial microsomia in unilateral cases and retrognathia
, micrognathia or microgenia in bilateral cases, presenting with a bird face like appearance.8
The child was dysmorphic; had lower centiles of her BMI for her age, pallor of skin, retrognathia
, crowned teeth, and mandible deformity.
They were all borderline orthognathic surgery subjects with skeletal Class III malocclusion and severe transverse maxillary deficiency with maxillary retrognathia