Osseous alterations Alterations in soft tissues Caudal displacement of the Macroglossia hyoid bone Tonsillar hypertrophy Thickening of the lateral pharyngeal walls Hypoplasia and/or maxillary or Thickening of the velum and mandibular retrodisplacement
uvular hypertrophy Arched palate Increase in pharynx length Deviated nasal septum Fat deposits in the neck Source: Authors.
The dendrasterid sand dollars provide one of the most intriguing examples of retrodisplacement (fig.
The retrodisplacement of the peristome and periproct are two of the effects predicted by the developmental model.
The dendrasterid periproct undergoes retrodisplacement late in ontogeny.
The retrodisplacement of the periproct serves as a conspicuous marker of this plate migration.
The dendrasterid periproct also undergoes retrodisplacement.
This model successfully accounts for the unusual features of the dendrasterid oral surface, including the retrodisplacement of the peristome and periproct.
However, it is also difficult to provide plausible functional explanations for the retrodisplacement of the dendrasterid periproct, for the changes in ambulacral and interambulacral development, and for the strong correlation between apical and peristomial eccentricity.
Clinical dues suggestive of this diagnosis include a history of infertility, dysmenorrhea, and deep dyspareunia and the findings of fixed uterine retrodisplacement
and tender uterosacral and cul-de-sac nodularity on pelvic examination.