Patients demographics, pathophysiology of ureteral defect and chronic kidney disease stage (by KDIGO (7)) according to pre-surgical data Demographic and preoperative data Age, median (years) 61 Gender, n (%) Male 19 (61) Female 12 (39) Preoperative pathology Iatrogenic injury 9 (29) Nephrolithiasis 6 (19) GU malignancy 6 (19) Other malignancy 3 (10) Fibrosis and FMF 2 (6) Retrocaval ureter
1 (3) Idiopathic or NA 4 (13) Side, n (%) Right 13 (42) Left 16 (52) Transplanted kidney 1 (3) NA 1 (3) Defect location Upper ureter 19 (61) Mid-ureter 10 (32) Mixed 2 (6) Preoperative CKD stage 1 5 (16) 2 15 (48) 3 5 (16) 4 4 (13) NA 2 (6) CKD: chronic kidney disease; FMF: familial Mediterranean fever; GU: genitourinary; NA: not available.
The retrocaval ureter
is a rare congenital entity that causes external compression of the proximal ureter and usually becomes symptomatic in the third or fourth decade of life .
4) In one case report hydatid cyst mimicked retrocaval ureter
Persistence of the right postcardinal vein with regression of the supracardinal vein results in the well-known anomaly Retrocaval ureter
Others A variety of other procedures have been performed using robotics in children, such as pyelolithotomy, (58) correction of retrocaval ureter
, (59) adrenalectomy, bladder neck sling, (60) ureteropyelostomy, excision of Mullerian duct remnants, (47) and sacrocolpopexy just to name a few.
50725 Ureterolysis for retrocaval ureter
, with reanastomosis of upper urinary tract or vena cava
Congenital anamolies that results in the obstruction of ureter are extremely rare, however, retrocaval ureter
is the most common anamoly with a renal cause.
A case of Candida parapsilosis fungal balls in the urinary tract associated with a retrocaval ureter
The minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery should be considered as the first choice of treatment for retrocaval ureter
due to cosmetic advantages and early recovery.
Duplication of inferior vena cava with left IVC terminating into left renal vein (2), Duplication of IVC with azygos continuation (3), Double IVC with double superior vena cava (4), Right sided duplicated IVC (5), Duplicated IVC with unilateral retrocaval ureter
(6), or Bilateral retrocaval ureter
10] We report on a case of retrocaval ureter
which we treated by pure robotic surgery with preservation of the retrocaval segment.
is a rare congenital anomally with an approximate incidence of one in 1,000 live births.