The new publisher, SAGE, was aware of the retractions
when it took over the journal in January.
32 This rise in retractions
is helping the growth of predatory journals and publishers as these dubious publishing portals promise quick publication for hard cash.
Patients in the group with normal CLE had a normal-appearing TM, neotympanum, limited plaques of tympanosclerosis, and mild retractions
(according to a modified Sade classification: medial displacement of the pars flaccida and/or pars tensa, without contacting the ossicular chain and without signs of bony erosion).
First, the study is 10 years old, and journals may have adopted retraction
policies in the interim, especially since retractions
have become a hot topic in scientific publishing and the COPE guidelines were not published until 2009.
In fact, what Tomaiuolo found out was a twofold predicament: Not only will publishers such as PubMed hardly ever include the retraction
notice, but in addition, authors are not in the habit of uploading a correction onto a site where they submitted the original piece.
9 percent of retractions
for fraud or suspected fraud in biomedical papers.
An analysis of Medline retractions
In their latest set of experiments, the researchers manipulated the strength of both the provided misinformation and the later retraction
The main purpose of retractions
is to correct the literature and ensure its integrity rather than to punish authors who misbehave.
First, as will be shown, it has sufficient "teeth" to protect the other party against opportunistic retractions
, and thus, it provides optimal reliance incentives.
Five months later, it gave the mayor a highly unusual 18-inch retraction
on the front page of its metro section.