Chung et al., "Retinoids inhibit interleukin-12 production in macrophages through physical associations of retinoid X receptor
and NF[kappa]B," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Zhi et al., "Design and synthesis of potent retinoid X receptor
selective ligands that induce apoptosis in leukemia cells," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol.
Previous studies have shown that nuclear receptors, especially retinoid X receptors
(RXR) and its heterodimerization partners, play important roles in maintenance of lipid homeostasis on their activation by a variety of ligands derived from dietary cholesterol and fatty acids [8, 9].
Phosphorylation of the retinoid x receptor
at the omega loop, modulates the expression of retinoic-acid-target genes with a promoter context specificity.
Blumberg and colleagues observed that estimates of health effects based on structure-function relationships--typically used to gauge the effects of a group of chemicals--would not have predicted the observed effects of organotins since organotin structures do not resemble those of other compounds that activate retinoid X receptors
and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [gamma].
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: retinoid X receptor
heterodimer is activated by fatty acids and fibrate hypolipidaemic drugs.
PPAR acts as a heterodimer with retinoid X Receptor
(RXR) to regulate transcription, and once activated, PPAR regulates the transcription of genes containing specific peroxisome proliferator response elements within DNA (Corton et al.
Finally, because the retinoid X receptor
(RXR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [alpha] (PPAR[alpha]) can activate estrogen-responsive genes (Nunez et al.
Ligand-bound PPAR[Alpha] regulates gene transcription by forming heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor
, RXR (28) (i.e., L-PPAR[Alpha]-RXR), which can bind specifically to peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) in the promoter region of peroxisome proliferator regulated genes.
AtRA affects by serving as an activating ligand of nuclear atRA receptors (RAR a, b, and g) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR b/d), which form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors
(Mark et al., 2006).
It is possible that alternations of TSH levels could be due to isotretinoin effects on nuclear retinoid X receptors
(RXR), which dimerizes with nuclear retinoid acid receptors (RAR) and nuclear thyroid receptors [2,13].
HAPUNA BEACH, HAWAII -- A novel retinoid that selectively activates retinoid X receptors
has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating patients with all stages of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.