retinal arterial occlusion

retinal arterial occlusion 

Occlusion of the central retinal artery (CRAO) is characterized by a sudden loss of vision and a defective direct pupil light reflex. The retinal arterioles are constricted while the veins are full but a venous pulse is absent. The retina appears white and swollen, especially near the posterior pole, and the choroid is seen through it as a cherry-red spot (Fig. S12). If the occlusion persists the cherry-red spot disappears after several weeks, the retinal arterioles remain attenuated, eventually becoming white threads, and the optic disc becomes atrophic.Occlusion is more frequently limited to one branch of the central retinal artery (BRAO). In this case, the clinical picture is limited to the area supplied by the branch and this is associated with a visual field defect in that region. Causes include retinal emboli due to a cardiovascular disease, systemic hypertension, temporal arteritis, oral contraceptives, syphilis, intravenous drug abuse or trauma. Treatment is urgent as there is an extremely serious risk of blindness. See amaurosis fugax; fluorescein angiography; atheroma; Hollenhorst's plaques; cherry-red spot.
Fig. S12 Cherry-red spot at the maculaenlarge picture
Fig. S12  Cherry-red spot at the macula
References in periodicals archive ?
The retina was attached but had a diffuse pale appearance due to retinal arterial occlusion, and there were widespread intraretinal hemorrhages.
Likewise, retinal arterial occlusion is rarely associated with optic nerve avulsion.
While visual loss due to central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) or branch retinal arterial occlusion (BRAO) following gas endotamponade and intraocular pressure (IOP) rise is a well-recognized complication [1,2], cases of central retinal venous occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal venous occlusion (BRVO) after vitreoretinal surgery have not been reported so far.
Iatrogenic retinal arterial occlusion was reported following vitreoretinal surgery with gas endotamponade and the use of nitrous oxide during general anesthesia leading to expansion of intraocular gas and consecutive severe IOP rise [9].
Patients with retinal arterial occlusion (RAO) are at extreme risk of experiencing:
The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygenation on Retinal Arterial Occlusion. Arch Ophthalmol.
Schumacher et al (3) showed a relationship between the eventual visual acuity and the time from central retinal arterial occlusion to the initiation of treatment.
In contrast to patients with retinal arterial occlusion, those with NAAION are not at an increased risk of early death from systemic vascular disease.
Retinal arterial occlusions (RAO) may be divided anatomically into central (CRAO) or branch (BRAO) forms, depending on the site of obstruction.
The incidence of retinal arterial occlusion is estimated to be 0.85/100,000 per year.
(7.) Dhanashree Ratra, Maneesh Dhupper, Retinal arterial occlusions in the young: Systemic associations in Indian population, Indian Journal Of Ophthalmology, Year : 2012 |Volume : 60 | Issue : 2 | Page : 95-100