Primate numts and reticulate evolution
of capped and golden leaf monkeys (Primates: Colobinae).
Moreover numerous plastid (trnL-F, ndhF, psA-ycf3, rps16, rpl16, atpB-rbcL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS, ETS) markers were also sequenced for molecular characterization (Yi et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014) and it was found that these two studies support neither 2 nor 4 sections but showed a reticulate evolution
in Pistacia genus.
Moreover, it was shown that these plants frequently experienced reticulate evolution
(hybridization/allopolyploidization) along with their diversification (Haufler 2008, Dyer et al.
have experienced reticulate evolution
(Reimer et al., 2007a).
Several arguments are given to justify a new theory, mainly based on present interpretation of different phenomena such as endosymbiosis, reticulate evolution
, the modern synthesis of embryonic development and evolution (evo-devo), phenotypic plasticity, epigenesis, evolvability, and the several evolutionary mechanisms: natural selection, gene flow, genetic drift, fusion of genomes and gene fragments, epigenetic mechanisms such as methylation of DNA, tool kits, regulatory cis-elements, hybridization and polyploidy.
Among the topics are chloroplast genomes, reticulate evolution
, crucifer evolution in the post-genomic era, the evolution of the flower, diversity in secondary metabolism, the ecological importance of species diversity, and genomic diversity in nature and domestication.
to be complicated by reticulate evolution
because hybridization between
4 illustrates this pattern of reticulate evolution
and indicates that at least three (and possibly five) species and one subspecies have arisen from natural hybridization (Rieseberg 1991).
Documentation of reticulate evolution
in peonies (Paeonia) using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA: implications for biogeography and concerted evolution.
Variation in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and 5.8s rDNA among five species of Acropora (Cnidaria: Scleractinia): patterns of variation consistent with reticulate evolution
(5) Phylogenetic analysis can be used to test past and current hybridization, and zoologists should no longer just assume that nonconcordant phylogenies are caused by incomplete lineage sorting rather than hybridization and reticulate evolution
. (6) We need a systematic survey to estimate the frequency and taxonomic distribution of natural hybridization.
But, given that the gene tree has been correctly resolved, it may not be congruent with the species tree, either as a result of lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization (reticulate evolution