Pharmacologic class: Tissue plasminogen activator
Therapeutic class: Thrombolytic enzyme
Pregnancy risk category C
Converts plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn breaks down fibrin and fibrinogen, thereby dissolving thrombus
Injection: Retavase Half-Kit-one vial of 10.4 units (18.1 mg)/vial; Retavase Kit-two vials of 10.4 units (18.1 mg)/vial
Indications and dosages
➣ Acute myocardial infarction
Adults: 10 units by I.V. bolus over 2 minutes, repeated in 30 minutes
• Pulmonary embolism
• Hypersensitivity to drug or alteplase
• Active internal bleeding
• Bleeding diathesis
• Recent intracranial or intraspinal surgery or trauma
• Intracranial neoplasm
• Arteriovenous malformation or aneurysm
• Severe uncontrolled hypertension
• History of cerebrovascular accident
Use cautiously in:
• previous puncture of noncompressible vessels, major surgery, obstetric delivery, organ biopsy, trauma, hypertension, conditions that may cause left-sided heart thrombus (including mitral stenosis), acute pericarditis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, hemostatic defects, diabetic hemorrhagic retinopathy, cerebrovascular disease, severe hepatic or renal dysfunction, septic thrombophlebitis or occluded AV cannula at a seriously infected site, other conditions in which bleeding poses a significant hazard
• concurrent use of oral anticoagulants (such as warfarin)
• patients older than age 75
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.
☞ If patient shows signs or symptoms of bleeding or anaphylaxis after first bolus dose, withhold second bolus and contact prescriber immediately.
• Use only diluent supplied (preservative-free sterile water for injection) to reconstitute drug into colorless solution of 1 unit/ml.
• If drug foams, let it sit until foam subsides.
• Don't use solution if it is discolored or contains visible precipitates.
• Don't give with other drugs in same I.V. line. Know that drug is incompatible with heparin.
CNS: intracranial hemorrhage
CV: arrhythmias, hemorrhage
GI: nausea, vomiting, GI bleeding
Hematologic: anemia, bleeding tendency
Other: fever, bleeding at puncture sites
Drug-drug. Anticoagulants, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, platelet aggregation inhibitors (such as abciximab, aspirin, dipyridamole): increased risk of bleeding
Drug-diagnostic tests. Hemoglobin: decreased level
International Normalized Ratio, partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time: increased
Drug-herbs. Ginkgo, many other herbs: increased risk of bleeding
☞ Check closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding in all body systems. Monitor coagulation studies and CBC.
• Monitor ECG for arrhythmias caused by coronary thrombolysis.
• Assess neurologic status to detect early signs and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage.
• Teach patient about drug's anticoagulant effect. Review safety measures to avoid injury, which can cause uncontrolled bleeding.
☞ Instruct patient to immediately report signs and symptoms of bleeding problems.
• Tell patient he'll undergo frequent blood testing during therapy.