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Clinical outcomes included amputation status, rest pain, and intermittent claudication pain scores using visual analogue scale, 6-minute walking distance, and examination of ulcers/wound or gangrene.
The patient had resolution of rest pain and regression of the ischaemic foot lesion, with an ABI of 0.8 3 weeks after the procedure.
Stage Symptoms 1 Asymptomatic (without symptoms) 2 Intermittent Claudication 3 Ischaemic rest pain 4 Severe rest pain with ulceration or gangrene or both.
Rest pain was present as a primary feature in all the patients (100%), while tissue loss or gangrene was seen in 22 (73.33%) cases.
They included (1) tender joint count; (2) swollen joint count; (3) assessment of rest pain; (4) patient global assessment of disease activity; (5) physician global assessment of disease activity; (6) health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) score; (7) acute phase reactants (ESR and CRP); and (8) radiographic change of bone and joint damage for trials lasting at least one year.
Chief symptoms were intermittent claudication, rest pain, gangrene of toes and ulceration at tip of toes or foot (Table 2).
"As the disease progresses, a person will begin to feel 'rest pain,' Inampudi said, "which means that the blood vessels are tight enough to cause pain in the leg even while at rest.
Patients with CLI have ankle pressures below 50 mmHg and/or toe pressures below 30 mmHg, ischaemic rest pain and/or tissue necrosis (skin ulcer or gangrene).
Although there was neither rest pain nor sensory disturbance, tenderness was detected at the supraclavicular fossa.
Patients were excluded if any of the following were present: absence of PAD; rest pain or tissue loss; limitations of exercise tolerance caused by conditions other than claudication (e.g.