The IRAP results yielded a response bias
toward forgiving oneself more readily than others.
Socially desirable response bias
may have contributed to higher scores as the survey was conducted within a course, causing students to want to report more favorable responses even though the assignment was ungraded (Paulhaus, 1991).
A response bias
with the demographic sample, loaded questions and contradictory responses lead me to suggest that your 'manifesto for the region' may not accurately reflect the views of the electorate.
For example, the data were obtained by self-report, "which might be subject to socially desirable response bias
, the extent of which can vary with age," they wrote.
Without response bias
may occur because of an inability to gain response from some experts of the targeted sample.
But somehow, the concept of response bias
lives on, despite that fact that a number of studies have disproved it, including a prominent study on upstate New York women that was based on medical records of abortion, that rendered response bias
Smith (2004) compared the acquiescent response bias
in six large-scale cross-cultural studies.
The possibility of response bias
cannot be ruled out and the fact that the responses observed in the demonstration we arranged were those of the skeletal muscles further complicates the case for a valid instance of habituation.
Polgreen acknowledged that that study was limited by self-reporting with no verification and by possible response bias
, with members who had encountered a drug shortage being more likely to respond.
Despite our best efforts, the response rate to our survey was not ideal, so definitive conclusions are not possible due to potential response bias
This procedure is "semi-projective" since the rater is not quite sure how the SD functions or is scored; there is a diminished possibility of response bias
and disingenuous responding.
Similar proportions of respondents reported illness and reported sleeping in the tents in both survey cohorts, making response bias
an unlikely explanation for the different findings.