However, we believed that posterior intestine was the main section for gas exchange, i.e., the gas exchange occurred in a few microvilli in the extended ultrathin cytoplasmic lamella, indicating that microvilli are not directly related to the increased respiratory surface
area but mainly plays a role in accessory digestion.
MP begins to propagate on the respiratory surface
of the ciliated epithelium, thereby inducing various cytokines .
Microscopical examination using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain showed a ciliated respiratory surface
epithelium having bland nuclear chromatin with numerous glandular spaces lined by the same type of epithelium underneath it.
All such damages make gills and accessory respiratory organs less functioning by reducing the respiratory surface
The harmonic mean thickness of the airhemolymph barrier was 0.14 [+ or -] 0.03 pm, the respiratory surface
density was 122.99 [+ or -] 35.84 [mm.sup.-1], and the book lung volume ranged from 12.2 to 37.5 [mm.sup.3].
Histology showed that lung exposure to a mixture of 14-nm particles, which had only minor effects themselves, and LPS led to recruitment of neutrophils in the parenchyma, the actual respiratory surface
of the lung.
We found that oral podia, which are used primarily for locomotion and adhesion, are stronger and thicker than aboral podia, which are used primarily for capturing drift material and as a respiratory surface
. The functional role of ambital podia is more ambiguous; however, they are longer and are extended at a lower strain rate than other podial types.
Some of these modifications include: heart size, hemoglobin concentration, capillary density, erythrocyte size and changes in respiratory surfaces
(Bouverot, 1985; Ruiz et al., 1989; Monge & Leon-Velarde, 1991; Weber, 1995; Samaja et al., 2003; Nikinmaa, 2013).
The new works incorporate bespoke textiles to evoke the feel and function of our respiratory surfaces
. The 'Lung Dresses' will raise the view that we take our lungs for granted and are unable to see the effects of smoke or particles that we inhale until it is too late.
"Cockroaches lose water across their respiratory surfaces
when they breathe, so taking shorter breaths in dry conditions reduces the amount of water they will lose," said Schimpf.
Examples include cleaning of respiratory surfaces
in both terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic invertebrates, as well as suspension-feeding in aquatic invertebrates.