Pulmonary lesions in livestock arise due to infection in the respiratory mucosa
and complications arising from myriad factors including host immune response, management, or environmental conditions (Chakraborty et al., 2014; Lacasta et al., 2008).
Histologic animal studies have confirmed this timeline, showing that respiratory mucosa
is restored by the 28th day after injury.
It is hypothesized that virus infected immune cells in the respiratory mucosa
migrate to the local lymphoid tissue, where it replicates and enters the general circulation (Herbert et al., 2014).
This kind of cold weather causes changes in our respiratory mucosa
, making it very dry and prone to an infection build-up.
While the anterior nares and vestibule are lined with a skin-like stratified, keratinized epithelium, the nasal fossa proper is entirely coated with respiratory mucosa
, consisting of a ciliated, highly vascularized, pseudostratified epithelium containing a sizeable number of mucus-producing goblet cells.
The respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is a benign lesion that arises from the respiratory mucosa
; it was first described by Wenig and Heffner (1).
 Exposure of formalin above permissible limit may create physiological modifications of respiratory mucosa
, which causes upper airway irritation, sore throat, tingling and burning sensations of the nose and nasal blockage.
Clinicopathologic differences in malignant melanoma arising in oral squamous and sinonasal respiratory mucosa
of the upper aerodigestive tract.
The turbinates are thin, curved, shelf-like bony projections, covered by respiratory mucosa
, in the lateral walls of the nose1.
Caption: Figure 3: A histologic specimen of respiratory mucosa
with thickened basement membrane and mild chronic inflammation.
The nasal respiratory mucosa
is lined with ciliary, pseudostratified, columnar epithelial cells, and mucus-secreting goblet cells interspersed with ciliary cells .
As a result of the 8-week inhalation of xylene; The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa
showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells, hyperplasia of squamous cells and edema, inflamation in sub epithelial area.