Data measurement: One bird was chosen at random per cage and its respiratory frequency
was observed during 15 s; this value was when multiplied by four to obtain the number of movements per minute.
In addition to the physiological responses of pupil dilation and temperature, data on respiratory frequency
(RF), heart rate (HR), skin surface temperature (ST) and rectal temperature (RT) were collected according to Lucena et al.
Rest Maximal exercise V[O.sub.2] (ml.[kg.sup.-1].[min.sup.-1]) 6.2 (.9) 56.7 (8.6) VC[O.sub.2] (ml.[min.sup.-1]) 372 (87) 4839 (483) VE (l.[min.sup.-1]) 12.7 (2.6) 151.2 (19.0) VT (ml) 1004 (117) 3290 (220) P0.1 (cm[H.sub.2]O) 1.3 (.2) 27.8 (7.0) TI/TTOT .41 (.02) .47 (.04) VT/TI (l.[s.sup.-1]) .4 (.1) 5.39 (1.0) f (bpm) 12 (3) 48 (10) V[O.sub.2] = oxygen uptake; VC[O.sub.2] = carbon dioxide output; VE = minute ventilation; VT = tidal volume; P0.1 = occlusion pressure; TI-TTOT = mean inspiratory time to total time of the respiratory cycle; VT-TI = mean inspiratory flow and f = respiratory frequency
The resulting P&S terms are respiratory frequency
area (RFa) and low frequency area (LFa), respectively, and sympathovagal balance (SB = LFa/RFa) is computed as a true ratio of independent parameters .
It is a mode of ventilation controlled by tidal volume and respiratory frequency
as constant parameters, with variable inspiratory pressures.
Cardiorespiratory parameters (respiratory frequency
, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and pulmonary water content) were determined, and histological examination of the lung was done in all groups.
Obtained results of the respiratory frequency
are comparable with a traditional technique (i.e., the piezoelectric belt) for normal and deep respiratory condition.
Normally, the respiratory frequency
is about 12~20 bmp, and heart rate is about 60-100 bmp for normal adults.
The series of rotation angles, obtained from least squared loop alignment is subject to power spectral analysis and estimation of the respiratory frequency
. It describes a powerful approach to estimate the respiratory frequency
from exercise ECG's and requires no additional equipment.
The differential in physiological response between the land walk protocols that employed a shuttle methodology compared with the treadmill protocols was most clearly evidenced at a walk speed of 7 km.[hr.sup.-1] when analyzing the heart rate, relative oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory frequency
and perceptual responses (see Figures 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6).
where a1 and a2 are the weighting factors dependent on the amplitude of the pulse waves, slow waves and respiratory frequency
; PS1 is the phase shift between the non-invasively measured informative and reference respiratory waves; PS2 is the phase shift between the non-invasively measured informative and reference slow waves.
A tracheotomy was performed in all animals, and respiratory frequency
(RF) was continuously monitored, using a pneumotachograph (model 0000, A.