respiratory distress syndrome of newborn
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respiratory distress syndrome of newbornHyaline membrane disease, respiratory distress Neonatology A morbid process seen in up to 50% of neonatal deaths–40,000/yr Clinical Atelectasis, hypoventilation, hypotensive shock, pulmonary vasoconstriction, alveolar hypoperfusion, shut-down of cell metabolism; 60% of HMD occurs in infants, most are < 28 wks of age; 5% occur in infants > than 37 wks; HMD is more frequent in the 2nd twin delivered, twin-to-twin transfusion recipient infant, ♂ infants, children of diabetic mothers and in C-sections; a vicious cycle begins where ↓ surfactant results in atelectasis, ↓ ventilation–↑ pCO2, ↓ pH, ↓ O2 and hypoxia exacerbating the lack of surfactant, causing shock and more hypoxia Clinical Early onset of tachypnea, prominent grunting, intercostal retractions–air hunger, cyanosis; the infants may not respond to O2; blood pressure and corporal temperature fall, asphyxia intervenes and causes death, or the Sx peak at 3 days and the infant recovers DiffDx Neonatal pneumonia, birth-related asphyxia, group B streptococcal sepsis, cyanotic heart disease Treatment Supportive–O2, correct acidosis, surfactant.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.