For the PTV to be drawn as accurately as possible, slow CT scanning is performed at the speed of 4 seconds/cross section which corresponds to the duration of entire respiratory cycle
. Reproducibility of PTV has been shown by this method (16).
After visualising the junction of the right atrium with the IVC, the probe should preferably be kept in this position to follow its collapse throughout the respiratory cycle
 Respiratory Cycle
: Definition and Explanation, http://physician diary.com/respiratory-cycle-definition-and-explanation/.
where [x.sub.i] is the value x of the signal for frame (or time) index i corresponding to the onset of a respiratory cycle
. In the second step, the algorithm provides the individuation of local minimum points on the signal and their indices between respiratory cycle
onsets determined in the first step as
Reduced respiratory motion amplitude and stable respiratory cycle
were observed in hypnosis with relaxation suggestion.
Hence, the respiratory muscles and the diaphragm of the swimmers are required to develop greater pressure as a consequence of immersion in water during the respiratory cycle
, thus leading to functionally better respiratory muscles.
Detailed flow characteristics within the whole respiratory cycle
can be calculated through current transient CFD simulation and presented in the form of the spatial and temporal distribution of wall pressure, flow velocity, and wall shear stress.
In first group, there were increased respiratory rales of air movement in cranial ventral lungs, these rales were more inclined towards expiratory phase of respiratory cycle
. The expiration was distressful long and with high pitched then inspiration being inaudible.
Measured in breaths per minute, RRp coincides with the changes in the displayed plethysmographic waveform (an algorithm that allows for continuous monitoring during a respiratory cycle
) as a scrolling graphic on the lower portion of the screen.
[15,16] In the presence of marked volume overload, the respiratory cycle
leads to minimal change of IVC, regardless of its absolute diameter.
PVI is a measure of the dynamic changes in perfusion index (PI) that occur during the respiratory cycle
. In clinical studies, PVI has been shown to help clinicians assess fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients under general anesthesia during surgery,2,3,4,5 in the ICU in both adults and children,6,7 and in septic patients in the early stages of shock in the emergency department.8 Another study used PVI as part of goal-directed therapy for patients in an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program who underwent colorectal surgery; the program led to significant reductions in lengths of stay, costs, surgical site infections,fluid administered, as well as improvement in patient satisfaction.
The respiratory cycle
also affects autonomic control.