Resin alcohols.
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In a study of various lignins derived from brewer's spent grain, 2D HSQC NMR revealed the substructures including [beta]-O-4 alkyl-aryl ethers (77-79%), [beta]-5 phenylcoumarans (11-13%), [beta]-[beta]' resinols (5-6%), and 5-5' dibenzodioxocins (3-5%); while 2D HMBC NMR and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage analyses showed that p-coumarates were acylating at the y-position of lignin side chains and were mostly occurred in condensed structures [90].
In addition, the signals for [C.sub.[alpha]]-[H.sub.[alpha]], [C.sub.[beta]]-[H.sub.[beta]], and [C.sub.[gamma]]-[H.sub.[gamma]] in resinol substructures ([beta]-[beta]', B) were determined by 84.8/4.62, 53.5/3.07, and 71.0/3.80 and 4.15 ppm.
Obviously, the [beta]-O-4' aryl ether linkages were the main side chains interunit linkages, accounting for 60.7-70.6% of all detectable side chains, followed by [beta]-[beta]' resinol (24.0-31.7%) and [beta]-5' phenylcoumaran (5.0-7.6%) linkages.